OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Editor: Franco Gori
  • Vol. 31, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2014
  • pp: A307–A313

Paradoxical effect of spatially homogenous transparent fields on simultaneous contrast illusions

Erica Dixon and Arthur G. Shapiro  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. A307-A313 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.31.00A307


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (659 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In simultaneous brightness contrast (SBC) demonstrations, identical mid-luminance disks appear different from each other when one is placed on a black background while the other is placed on a white background. The strength of SBC effects can be enhanced by placing a semi-transparent layer on top of the display (Meyer’s effect). Here, we try to separate the causes of Meyer’s effect by placing a spatially homogenous transparent layer over a standard SBC display, and systematically varying the transmission level ( alpha = 0 , clear; alpha = 1 , opaque) and color (black, gray, white) of the semi-transparent layer. Spatially homogenous transparent layers, which lack spatial cues, cannot be unambiguously interpreted as transparent fields. We measure SBC strength with both matching and ranking procedures. Paradoxically, with black layers, increasing alpha level weakens SBC when measured with a ranking procedure (no Meyer’s effect) and strengthens SBC when measured with a matching procedure (Meyer’s effect). With white and gray layers, neither procedure produces Meyer’s effect. We account for the differences between white and black layers by positing that the visual system separates luminance from contrast. The results suggest that observers attend to different information in the matching and ranking procedures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
(330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology
(330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
(330.6110) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial filtering

ToC Category:
Color sensitivity and appearance

History
Original Manuscript: October 3, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 7, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 10, 2014
Published: February 27, 2014

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Erica Dixon and Arthur G. Shapiro, "Paradoxical effect of spatially homogenous transparent fields on simultaneous contrast illusions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A307-A313 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-31-4-A307


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. H. Adelson, “Lightness perception and lightness illusions,” in The New Cognitive Neuroscience, M. Gazzaniga, ed., 2nd ed. (MIT, 2000), pp. 339–351.
  2. B. Blakeslee, W. Pasieka, M. E. McCourt, “Oriented multiscale spatial filtering and contrast normalization: a parsimonious model of brightness induction in a continuum of stimuli including White, Howe and simultaneous brightness contrast,” Vis. Res. 45, 607–615 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Kingdom, “Simultaneous contrast: the legacies of Hering and Helmholtz,” Perception 26, 493–506 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “A multiscale spatial filtering account of the White effect, simultaneous brightness contrast and grating induction,” Vis. Res. 39, 4361–4377 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Zaidi, B. Yoshimi, N. Flanigan, A. Canova, “Lateral interactions within color mechanisms in simultaneous induced contrast,” Vis. Res. 32, 1695–1707 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Meyer, “Uber Kontrast -und Komplementarfarben,” Annalen der Physik, XCV, 170–171 (1855). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hering, “Ueber die Theorie des simultanen Contrastes von Helmholtz: II. Der Contrastversuch von H. Meyer und die Versuche am Farbenkreisel,” Pflugers Archiv fur Physiologie 41, 1–29 (1887). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kohler, “Der simultane Farben- und Helligkeitskontrast, mit besonder Berucksichtigung des sog. Florkontrastes,” Archiv fur die gesamte Psychologie 2, 1531–1540 (1904).
  9. E. C. Hildreth, Lectures on Visual Psychology (Professional, 1949).
  10. G. L. Walls, “Land! Land!” Psychol. Bull. 57, 29–48 (1960). [CrossRef]
  11. R. O. Brown, “Backgrounds and illuminants: the yin and yang of colour constancy,” in Colour Perception, R. Mausfeld, D. Heyer, eds. (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 247–272.
  12. R. Mausfeld, “Colour as part of the format of different perceptual primitives: the dual coding of color,” in Colour PerceptionR. Mausfeld, D. Heyer, eds (Oxford University, 2003), pp. 381–429.
  13. V. Ekroll, F. Faul, “New laws of simultaneous contrast?” Seeing Perceiving 25, 107–141 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. H. H. von Helmholtz, J. Southall, translators, Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, 1924) (Original work published in 1867).
  15. E. C. Sanford, “A laboratory course in physiological psychology,” Am. J. Psychol. 5, 390–415 (1893). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Anderson, J. Winawer, “Image segmentation and lightness perception,” Nature 434, 79–83 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. B. L. Anderson, J. Winawer, “Layered image representations and the computation of surface lightness,” J. Vis. 8(7):18 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. M. K. Albert, “Mechanisms of modal and amodal interpolation,” Psychol. Rev. 114, 455–468 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. F. A. A. Kingdom, “Lightness, brightness and transparency: a quarter century of new ideas, captivating demonstrations and unrelenting controversy,” Vis. Res. 51, 652–673 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, R. W. Fleming, “The interpolation of object and surface structure,” Cognitive Psychol. 44, 148–190 (2002).
  21. B. L. Anderson, “Stereoscopic surface perception,” Neuron 24, 919–928 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. L. Wittgenstein, Remarks on Colour, G. E. M. Anscombe, ed., translated by L. L. McAlister and M. Schättle (Blackwell, 1977).
  23. A. Shapiro, Z.-L. Lu, “Relative brightness in natural images can be accounted for by removing blurry content,” Psychol. Sci. 22, 1452–1459 (2011).
  24. E. L. Dixon, A. G. Shapiro, Z.-L. Lu, “Scale-invariance in brightness illusions implicates object-level visual processing,” submitted to Sci. Rep.
  25. A. G. Shapiro, “Separating color from color contrast,” J. Vis. 8(1), 8 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. D. Purves, S. M. Williams, S. Nundy, R. B. Lotto, “Perceiving the intensity of light,” Psychol. Rev. 111, 142–158 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. S. C. Dakin, P. J. Bex, “Natural image statistics mediate brightness ‘filling in’,” P. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 270, 2341–2348 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. A. L. Gilchrist, A. Radonjić, “Functional frameworks of illumination revealed by probe disk technique,” J. Vis. 10(5):6 (2010). [CrossRef]
  29. B. Blakeslee, M. E. McCourt, “When is spatial filtering enough? Investigation of brightness and lightness perception in stimuli containing a visible illumination component,” Vis. Res. 60, 40–50 (2012). [CrossRef]
  30. A. E. Robinson, V. R. De Sa, “Brief presentations reveal the temporal dynamics of brightness induction and White’s illusion,” Vis. Res. 48, 2370–2381 (2008). [CrossRef]
  31. A. G. Shapiro, A. D. D. Antona, J. P. Charles, L. A. Belano, J. B. Smith, M. Shear-Heyman, “Induced contrast asynchronies,” J. Vis. 4(6):5 (2004). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, F. W. Cornelissen, “Do cortical neurons process luminance or contrast to encode surface properties?” J. Neurophysiol. 95, 2638–2649 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. P. Whittle, “The psychophysics of contrast brightness,” in Lightness, Brightness, and Transparency, A. L. Gilchrist, ed. (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994), pp. 35–110.
  34. A. Sutter, N. Graham, “Investigating simple and complex mechanisms in texture segregation using the speed-accuracy tradeoff method,” Vis. Res. 35, 2825–2843 (1995). [CrossRef]
  35. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast; 2. reflectance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457–468 (1993). [CrossRef]
  36. L. E. Arend, B. Spehar, “Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. illuminance variation,” Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446–456 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited