Based on the vectorial Rayleigh–Sommerfeld integrals, the analytical expressions for azimuthal-variant vector fields diffracted by an annular aperture are presented. This helps us to investigate the propagation behaviors and the focusing properties of apertured azimuthal-variant vector fields under nonparaxial and paraxial approximations. The diffraction by a circular aperture, a circular disk, or propagation in free space can be treated as special cases of this general result. Simulation results show that the transverse intensity, longitudinal intensity, and far-field divergence angle of nonparaxially apertured azimuthal-variant vector fields depend strongly on the azimuthal index, the outer truncation parameter and the inner truncation parameter of the annular aperture, as well as the ratio of the waist width to the wavelength. Moreover, the multiple-ring-structured intensity pattern of the focused azimuthal-variant vector field, which originates from the diffraction effect caused by an annular aperture, is experimentally demonstrated.
© 2014 Optical Society of America
Diffraction and Gratings
Original Manuscript: April 8, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: June 2, 2014
Published: June 30, 2014
Bing Gu, Danfeng Xu, Yang Pan, and Yiping Cui, "Nonparaxial propagation and focusing properties of azimuthal-variant vector fields diffracted by an annular aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 1657-1665 (2014)