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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

  • Vol. 5, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 1988
  • pp: 1852–1862

Experimental configurations using optical phase modulation to measure chiral asymmetries in light specularly reflected from a naturally gyrotropic medium

M. P. Silverman, N. Ritchie, G. M. Cushman, and B. Fisher  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 5, Issue 11, pp. 1852-1862 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.5.001852


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Abstract

Chirally asymmetric responses of a gyrotropic medium to left and right circularly polarized light as manifested in specular light reflection are systematically identified and interpreted. Experimental configurations using one or more photoelastic modulators and synchronous detection are described, by means of which the chiral asymmetries should be measurable with a sensitivity comparable with that of light-transmission techniques. Measurement of these chiral asymmetries would (a) provide experimental tests of recently proposed Fresnel scattering amplitudes for isotropic chiral media and (b) open up new spectroscopic possibilities for the investigation of nontransparent gyrotropic media.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 12, 1988
Manuscript Accepted: June 15, 1988
Published: November 1, 1988

Citation
M. P. Silverman, N. Ritchie, G. M. Cushman, and B. Fisher, "Experimental configurations using optical phase modulation to measure chiral asymmetries in light specularly reflected from a naturally gyrotropic medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1852-1862 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-5-11-1852


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References

  1. Fresnel’s theory of optical rotation and his speculation on chirally inequivalent structures are given in, respectively, A. Fresnel, Ann. Chim. 28, 147 (1825); Bull. Soc. Philomath. (1824); Herschel’s identification of the two hemihedral forms of quartz is reported in J. F. W. Herschel, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 1, 43 (1822).
  2. L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge, London, 1982), p. xiv.
  3. M. Bouchiat, L. Pottier, “Optical experiments and weak interactions,” Science 234, 1203–1210 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. D. Barron, M. P. Bogaard, A. D. Buckingham, “Raman scattering of circularly polarized light by optically active molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 95, 604–606 (1973). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Hug, S. Kint, G. Bailey, J. Scherer, “Raman circular intensity differential spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 5589–5590 (1975). [CrossRef]
  6. M. P. Silverman, “Specular light scattering from a chiral medium,” Lett. Nuovo Cimento 43, 378–382 (1985). [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Silverman, “Reflection and refraction at the surface of a chiral medium: comparison of gyrotropic constitutive relations invariant or noninvariant under a duality transformation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 830–837 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Silverman, “Test of gyrotropic constitutive relations by specular light reflection,” Opt. News 11(9), 135 (1985); J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(13), P99 (1985).
  9. M. P. Silverman, “Coherent light scattering at the interface of an isotropic chiral medium and homogeneous inactive dielectric,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 798 (1985).
  10. M. P. Silverman, T. C. Black, “Test of the Fresnel relations for a chiral medium,” in Optics and the Information Age (14th Congress of the International Commission for Optics), H. H. Arsenault, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.813, 435–436 (1988).
  11. M. P. Silverman, T. C. Black, “Experimental method to detect chiral asymmetry in specular light scattering from a naturally optically active medium,” Phys. Lett. A 126, 171–176 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, “New design for a photoelastic modulator,” Appl. Opt. 22, 592–594 (1983), and references therein. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, “Photoelastic modulator for polarimetry and ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2861–2862 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. See, for example, M. A. Islam, A. Kponou, B. Suleman, W. Happer, “Magnetic circular dichroism of excimer molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 643–646 (1981); J. C. Kemp, “Circular dichroism measurements with the photoelastic modulator,” PEM Application Note 2 (HINDS International, Portland, Ore., 1975). [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Kemp, G. D. Henson, C. T. Steiner, E. R. Powell, “The optical polarization of the Sun measured at a sensitivity of parts in ten million,” Nature 326, 270–273 (1987). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, “Sensitive devices to determine the state and degree of polarization of a light beam using a birefringence modulator,” J. Opt. 8, 373–384 (1977). [CrossRef]
  17. This work was reported briefly in M. P. Silverman, N. Ritchie, G. M. Cushman, “Precision reflection spectroscopy by means of phase-modulated light,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 372 (1988).
  18. Several misprints in Ref. 7 were corrected in M. P. Silverman, “Reflection and refraction at the surface of a chiral medium: comparison of gyrotropic constitutive relations invariant or noninvariant under a duality transformation: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1145 (1987).Equation (2k) corrects a further printing error. [CrossRef]
  19. H. Eyring, J. Walter, G. Kimball, Quantum Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1944), pp. 332–347.
  20. The defining expression of dc used in this paper is the negative of that used in Ref. 7, in which the selection of the incident TM direction followed the convention eˆTM×eˆTE=kˆ. The reversal of the TM direction leads to interchange of right and left circular polarizations.
  21. The Fourier–Bessel series pertinent to this paper take the formsin(asinz)=2[J1(a)sin(z)+J3(a)sin(3z)+J5(a)sin(5z)+…],cos(asinz)=J0(a)+2[J2(a)cos(2z)+J4(a)cos(4z)+…].See, for example, M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1965) p. 361.
  22. PEM remnant birefringence was measured (as described in Ref. 11) by setting the PEM between two crossed polarizers with the modulation axis at 45° to the transmission axes. The residual birefringence is determined from the relation I(f)/I(2f) = [J1(m)/J2(m)]tan(m′). For m′≪ 1, one has m′~ [J2(m)/J1(m)][(f)/I(2f)].

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