OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A


  • Vol. 7, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 1990
  • pp: 961–969

Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures

Frank Wyrowski  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 7, Issue 6, pp. 961-969 (1990)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1986 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A procedure to calculate a highly quantized, blazed phase structure is presented. Characteristics that are concentrated on are a high diffraction efficiency and a large signal-to-noise ratio. The calculation techniques are based on iterative Fourier-transform algorithms. Stagnation problems are discussed, and methods to overcome them are described.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 30, 1989
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 1990
Published: June 1, 1990

Frank Wyrowski, "Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantized, blazed phase structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 961-969 (1990)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction efficiencies of thin phase gratings with arbitrary grating shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 806–809 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Lee, “Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. 16, pp. 119–232. [CrossRef]
  3. W. J. Dallas, “Computer-generated holograms,” in The Computer in Optical Research, B. R. Frieden, ed., Vol. 41 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 291–366. [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Arnold, “Electron beam fabrication of computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yatagai, R. Sugawara, H. Hashizume, M. Suki, “Phase-only computer-generated hologram produced by an ion-exchange technique,” Opt. Lett. 13, 952–954 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Weissbach, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital phase holograms: coding and quantization with an error diffusion concept,” Opt. Commun. 72, 37–41 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. R. Fienup, “Iterative method applied to image reconstruction and to computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 19, 297–305 (1980). [CrossRef]
  9. P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, L. B. Lesem, “Method of making an object/dependent diffuser,” U.S. Patent3,619,022 (November9, 1971).
  10. N. C. Gallagher, B. Liu, “Method for computing kinoforms that reduces image reconstruction error,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2328–2335 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Wyrowski, “Considerations on the bandwidth of phase factors,” to be submitted to Opt. Commun.
  12. F. Wyrowski, “Diffraction efficiency of analog and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 383–393 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Akahori, “Spectrum leveling by an iterative algorithm with a dummy area for synthesizing the kinoform,” Appl. Opt. 25, 802–811 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordon, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969). [CrossRef]
  15. A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, “Binary Fraunhofer holograms, generated by computer,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1739–1748 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W.-H. Lee, “Binary computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3661–3669 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Hauck, O. Bryngdahl, “Computer-generated holograms with pulse-density modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 5–10 (1984). [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, D. W. Sweeney, “Synthesis of digital holograms by direct binary search,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2788–2798 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Wyrowski, “Iterative quantization of digital amplitude holograms,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3864–3870 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Dammann, “Blazed synthetic phase-only holograms,” Optik 31, 95–104 (1970).
  21. J. W. Goodman, A. M. Silvestri, “Some effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 478–484 (1970). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Bartelt, J. Horner, “Improving binary phase correlation filters using iterative techniques,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2894–2897 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Broja, F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, “Digital halftoning by iterative procedure,” Opt. Commun. 69, 205–210 (1988). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited