Three methods for improving the image of phase-contrast microscopy are proposed. The first two methods subtract, from the ordinary phase-contrast image, the image obtained through an objective with different pupil functions from that of the ordinary objective. These methods can reduce the distortion due to nonlinearity to less than 1/10 of the ordinary phase-contrast image. The third method simply uses a brighter objective lens along with a television camera with offset adjustment. The brighter lens results in higher sensitivity and less distortion. Theory, computer simulation, and a few experimental results are presented.
© 1991 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 6, 1990
Manuscript Accepted: October 17, 1990
Published: March 1, 1991
Iku Nemoto and Akira Takahashi, "Methods of improving the images in phase-contrast microscopy: theory and computer simulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 511-519 (1991)