## Method-of-moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas |

JOSA A, Vol. 28, Issue 7, pp. 1341-1348 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.28.001341

Acrobat PDF (561 KB)

### Abstract

We present a surface integral equation (SIE) to model the electromagnetic behavior of metallic objects at optical frequencies. The electric and magnetic current combined field integral equation considering both tangential and normal equations is applied. The SIE is solved by using a method-of-moments (MoM) formulation. The SIE-MoM approach is applied only on the material boundary surfaces and interfaces, avoiding the cumbersome volumetric discretization of the objects and the surrounding space required in differential-equation formulations. Some canonical examples have been analyzed, and the results have been compared with analytical reference solutions in order to prove the accuracy of the proposed method. Finally, two plasmonic Yagi–Uda nanoantennas have been analyzed, illustrating the applicability of the method to the solution of real plasmonic problems.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

## 1. INTRODUCTION

1. S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. **98**, 011101 (2005). [CrossRef]

2. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. **9**, 193–204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science **308**, 1561–1563 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photon. **2**, 270–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

6. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. **1**, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

7. T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “**7**, 28–33 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express **15**, 14266–14274 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. **7**, 496–501 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bow-tie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. **210**, 279–283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. **4**, 957–961 (2004). [CrossRef]

12. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science **308**, 1607–1608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B **71**, 235420 (2005). [CrossRef]

14. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. **6**, 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express **15**, 17736–17746 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. **1**, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

16. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. **10**, 105005 (2008). [CrossRef]

17. J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi–Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B **76**, 245403 (2007). [CrossRef]

18. H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. **9**, 217 (2007). [CrossRef]

19. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Opt. Express **16**, 10858–10866 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photon. **4**, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

21. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science **329**, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photon. **4**, 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

21. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science **329**, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22. J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. **10**, 3596–3603 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. A. Taflove and M. E. Brodwin, “Numerical solution of steady-state electromagnetic scattering problems using the time- dependent Maxwell’s equations,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. **23**, 623–630 (1975). [CrossRef]

25. P. Monk, *Finite Element Methods for Maxwell’s Equations* (Oxford University Press, 2003). [CrossRef]

26. R. F. Harrington, *Field Computation by Moment Methods*, IEEE Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory (IEEE, 1993). [CrossRef]

28. Y. Chang and R. F. Harrington, “A surface formulation for characteristic modes of material bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **25**, 789–795 (1977). [CrossRef]

29. T. K. Wu and L. L. Tsai, “Scattering from arbitrarily-shaped lossy dielectric bodies of revolution,” Radio Sci. **12**, 709–718 (1977). [CrossRef]

30. A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **26**, 732–740 (2009). [CrossRef]

31. B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **27**, 2261–2271 (2010). [CrossRef]

32. M. S. Yeung, “Single integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by three-dimensional dielectric objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **47**, 1615–1622 (1999). [CrossRef]

33. P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Järvenpää, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci. **40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

33. P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Järvenpää, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci. **40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

34. S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, H-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics **10**, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]

35. K. C. Donepudi, J.-M. Jin, and W. C. Chew, “A higher order multilevel fast multipole algorithm for scattering from mixed conducting/dielectric bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **51**, 2814–2821 (2003). [CrossRef]

36. P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **53**, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

37. P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and J. Sarvas, “Surface integral equation method for general integral equation method for general composite metallic and dielectric structures with junctions,” PIER **52**, 81–108 (2005). [CrossRef]

38. Ö. Ergül and L. Gürel, “Comparison of integral-equation formulations for the fast and accurate solution of scattering problems involving dielectric objects with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **57**, 176–187 (2009). [CrossRef]

33. P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Järvenpää, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci. **40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

34. S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, H-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics **10**, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]

35. K. C. Donepudi, J.-M. Jin, and W. C. Chew, “A higher order multilevel fast multipole algorithm for scattering from mixed conducting/dielectric bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **51**, 2814–2821 (2003). [CrossRef]

36. P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **53**, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

38. Ö. Ergül and L. Gürel, “Comparison of integral-equation formulations for the fast and accurate solution of scattering problems involving dielectric objects with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **57**, 176–187 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 2. GENERAL SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION FORMULATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PLASMONIC MATERIALS

35. K. C. Donepudi, J.-M. Jin, and W. C. Chew, “A higher order multilevel fast multipole algorithm for scattering from mixed conducting/dielectric bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **51**, 2814–2821 (2003). [CrossRef]

**40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

**r**the observation points approaching to

**40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

**J**space. In the same way, we combine the N-EFIE and

*η*T-MFIE equations, leading to the magnetic current combined field integral equation (MCFIE) in region

*j*[33

**40**, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

34. S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, H-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics **10**, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]

**51**, 2814–2821 (2003). [CrossRef]

36. P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **53**, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

37. P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and J. Sarvas, “Surface integral equation method for general integral equation method for general composite metallic and dielectric structures with junctions,” PIER **52**, 81–108 (2005). [CrossRef]

38. Ö. Ergül and L. Gürel, “Comparison of integral-equation formulations for the fast and accurate solution of scattering problems involving dielectric objects with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **57**, 176–187 (2009). [CrossRef]

**53**, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

**57**, 176–187 (2009). [CrossRef]

43. S. M. Rao, D. R. Wilton, and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **30**, 409–418 (1982). [CrossRef]

44. D. R. Wilton, S. M. Rao, A. W. Glisson, D. H. Schaubert, O. M. Al-Bundak, and C. M. Butler, “Potential integrals for uniform and linear source distributions on polygonal and polyhedral domains,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **32**, 276–281 (1984). [CrossRef]

45. R. E. Hodges and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “The evaluation of MFIE integrals with the use of vector triangle basis functions,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. **14**, 9–14 (1997). [CrossRef]

46. R. D. Graglia, “On the numerical integration of the linear shape functions times the 3-D Green’s function or its gradient on a plane triangle,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. **41**, 1448–1455 (1993). [CrossRef]

47. P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Calculation of CFIE impedance matrix elements with RWG and **51**, 1837–1846 (2003). [CrossRef]

## 3. SIMULATION RESULTS

10. K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bow-tie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. **210**, 279–283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

48. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B **6**, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

50. A. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. **9**, 4228–4233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

51. B. Stout, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, and N. Bonod, “Multipole methods for nano-antennas design: applications to Yagi–Uda configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **28**, 1213–1223 (2011). [CrossRef]

50. A. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. **9**, 4228–4233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

48. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B **6**, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

50. A. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. **9**, 4228–4233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**9**, 4228–4233 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Opt. Express **16**, 10858–10866 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Opt. Express **16**, 10858–10866 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**16**, 10858–10866 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science **329**, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

52. A. Devilez, N. Bonod, and B. Stout, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano **4**, 3390–3396 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 4. CONCLUSION

## ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1. | S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. |

2. | J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. |

3. | S. A. Maier, |

4. | J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science |

5. | M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photon. |

6. | P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. |

7. | T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “ |

8. | P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express |

9. | F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. |

10. | K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bow-tie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. |

11. | D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. |

12. | P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science |

13. | J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B |

14. | A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. |

15. | O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express |

16. | T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. |

17. | J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi–Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B |

18. | H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. |

19. | T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Opt. Express |

20. | T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” Nat. Photon. |

21. | A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science |

22. | J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. |

23. | A. Taflove and M. E. Brodwin, “Numerical solution of steady-state electromagnetic scattering problems using the time- dependent Maxwell’s equations,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. |

24. | T. Weiland, “A discretization method for the solution of Maxwell’s equations for six-component fields,” AEU Arch. Elektron. Übertragungstech. |

25. | P. Monk, |

26. | R. F. Harrington, |

27. | A. J. Poggio and E. K. Miller, |

28. | Y. Chang and R. F. Harrington, “A surface formulation for characteristic modes of material bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

29. | T. K. Wu and L. L. Tsai, “Scattering from arbitrarily-shaped lossy dielectric bodies of revolution,” Radio Sci. |

30. | A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3D simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

31. | B. Gallinet, A. M. Kern, and O. J. F. Martin, “Accurate and versatile modeling of electromagnetic scattering on periodic nanostructures with a surface integral approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

32. | M. S. Yeung, “Single integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by three-dimensional dielectric objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

33. | P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Järvenpää, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci. |

34. | S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, H-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics |

35. | K. C. Donepudi, J.-M. Jin, and W. C. Chew, “A higher order multilevel fast multipole algorithm for scattering from mixed conducting/dielectric bodies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

36. | P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

37. | P. Ylä-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and J. Sarvas, “Surface integral equation method for general integral equation method for general composite metallic and dielectric structures with junctions,” PIER |

38. | Ö. Ergül and L. Gürel, “Comparison of integral-equation formulations for the fast and accurate solution of scattering problems involving dielectric objects with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

39. | J. Rivero, J. M. Taboada, L. Landesa, F. Obelleiro, and I. García-Tuñón, “Surface integral equation formulation for the analysis of left-handed metamaterials,” Opt. Express |

40. | J. M. Taboada, L. Landesa, F. Obelleiro, J. L. Rodriguez, J. M. Bertolo, M. G. Araujo, J. C. Mouriño, and A. Gomez, “High scalability FMM-FFT electromagnetic solver for supercomputer systems,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. |

41. | M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, F. Obelleiro, J. M. Bértolo, L. Landesa, J. Rivero, and J. L. Rodríguez, “Supercomputer aware approach for the solution of challenging electromagnetic problems,” PIER |

42. | J. M. Taboada, M. G. Araújo, J. M. Bértolo, L. Landesa, F. Obelleiro, and J. L. Rodríguez, “MLFMA-FFT parallel algorithm for the solution of large-scale problems in electromagnetics,” PIER |

43. | S. M. Rao, D. R. Wilton, and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

44. | D. R. Wilton, S. M. Rao, A. W. Glisson, D. H. Schaubert, O. M. Al-Bundak, and C. M. Butler, “Potential integrals for uniform and linear source distributions on polygonal and polyhedral domains,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

45. | R. E. Hodges and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “The evaluation of MFIE integrals with the use of vector triangle basis functions,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. |

46. | R. D. Graglia, “On the numerical integration of the linear shape functions times the 3-D Green’s function or its gradient on a plane triangle,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. |

47. | P. Ylä-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Calculation of CFIE impedance matrix elements with RWG and |

48. | P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B |

49. | C. A. Balanis, |

50. | A. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single photon and single plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. |

51. | B. Stout, A. Devilez, B. Rolly, and N. Bonod, “Multipole methods for nano-antennas design: applications to Yagi–Uda configurations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B |

52. | A. Devilez, N. Bonod, and B. Stout, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano |

**OCIS Codes**

(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

**ToC Category:**

Optics at Surfaces

**History**

Original Manuscript: March 18, 2011

Revised Manuscript: May 9, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: May 15, 2011

Published: June 3, 2011

**Citation**

José M. Taboada, Javier Rivero, Fernando Obelleiro, Marta G. Araújo, and Luis Landesa, "Method-of-moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **28**, 1341-1348 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-28-7-1341

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### References

- S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005). [CrossRef]
- J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
- J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science 308, 1561–1563 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photon. 2, 270–273 (2008). [CrossRef]
- P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 Resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 28–33(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15, 14266–14274 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. Tam, G. P. Goodrich, B. R. Johnson, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7, 496–501 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Sendur and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation of bow-tie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies,” J. Microsc. 210, 279–283 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004). [CrossRef]
- P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1608(2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 235420 (2005). [CrossRef]
- A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6, 355–360 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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