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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

| OPTICS, IMAGE SCIENCE, AND VISION

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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 20 of 20

January


Time-domain solution to the radiative transfer equation in an infinite turbid medium with linearly anisotropic scattering

  • Margarita Shendeleva
  • received 11/28/2014; accepted 01/21/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 228728
  • [full text: PDF (383) KB)]
  • Abstract: A time-dependent solution of the transport equation with an instantaneous point source is considered by the multiple collision method developed by Kholin [Zh. Vych. Mat. i Mat. Fys. 4, 1126 (1964)]. For a linear phase function, Kholin’s solution is found to be considerably simplified and can be expressed through a single integral. The shape of the time-dependent angle-averaged scattering intensity is shown to depend on the distance from the source. For short distances, the angle-averaged scattering intensity decays monotonically with time. For longer distances, the angle-averaged intensity exhibits two peaks. The first, infinite peak occurs at the wavefront and is followed by a very narrow decaying tail. The second peak occurs at approximately the position of the diffusion peak, but is higher than the diffusion peak. At large distances, the shape of the intensity after the wavefront arrival is well approximated by the diffusion shape. Good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation is demonstrated.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.1990) Scattering : Diffusion
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media

Phase retrieval of reflection and transmission coefficients from Kramers-Kronig relations

  • Boris Gralak, Michel Lequime, Myriam Zerrad, and Claude Amra
  • received 01/13/2015; accepted 01/17/2015; posted 01/21/2015; Doc. ID 232411
  • [full text: PDF (769) KB)]
  • Abstract: Analytic and passivity properties of reflection and transmission coefficients of thin-film multilayered stacks are investigated. Using a rigorous formalism based on the inverse Helmholtz operator, properties associated to causality principle and passivity are established when both temporal frequency and spatial wavevector are continued in the complex plane. This result extends the range of situations where the Kramers-Kronig relations can be used to deduce the phase from the intensity. In particular, it is rigorously shown that Kramers-Kronig relations for re ection and transmission coefficients remain valid for all fixed angle of incidence. Possibilities to exploit the new relationships are discussed and numerically tested.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
  • (260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion
  • (310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
  • (310.6188) Thin films : Spectral properties

Intensity-symmetric Airy beams

  • Pablo Vaveliuk, Alberto Lencina, Jose A. Rodrigo, and Oscar Martinez Matos
  • received 11/11/2014; accepted 01/09/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 226603
  • [full text: PDF (684) KB)]
  • Abstract: A theoretical, numerical and experimental research on a novel family of Airy beams in rectangular coordinates having a symmetric transverse pattern of light intensity is presented. The intensity-symmetric Airy beams include the (anti)symmetric Airy beam whose field amplitude is an (odd)even function of the transverse coordinates. The theoretical foundations are based on the relationship of the symmetries of the spectral phase with the $\cos$ and $\sin$-Fourier transforms. These beams are analyzed in a propagation range also including the region preceding the Fourier plane. These beams exhibit autofocusing, collapse, self-bending and reversal propagation. Moreover, the intensity distribution is strongly asymmetric with respect to the Fourier Plane. All these peculiar features were not reported for other class of paraxial beams in a rectangular frame. The experimental generation of intensity-symmetric Airy beams is demonstrated supporting the theoretical predictions. Possible applications in planar waveguide writing and optical trapping are also discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing
  • (140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (260.5950) Physical optics : Self-focusing
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Waveguide mode-in-the box with extra flat dispersion curve

  • Anne-Laure Fehrembach, Evgeny Popov, and Nadège Rassem
  • received 10/29/2014; accepted 01/09/2015; posted 01/12/2015; Doc. ID 225942
  • [full text: PDF (548) KB)]
  • Abstract: The extraordinary flattening on the dispersion curve of the so-called Cavity Resonator Integrated Guided-mode resonance Filters (CRIGFs) is analysed and explained as due to the intra-mode coupling imposed by the external Bragg resonators. CRIGFs are composed with a grating coupler (Guided-Mode Resonance Filter - GMRF) surrounded by a Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) used to confine the excited guided mode. They provide resonances with small spectral width (smaller than 1 nm for optical wavelengths) and extra-wide angular acceptance (several degrees). At a first glance, one may think that similar performances could be obtained while putting the GMRF and the DBR one above the other, forming a so-called “doubly periodic” grating, as in this configuration also the DBR confines the mode. Yet, the angular acceptance of CRIGF is an order of magnitude greater than in classical gratings, even with complex pattern. The aim of the present paper is to identify the phenomenon responsible for the extraordinary large angular acceptance of CRIGF. We numerically calculate, for the first time to our knowledge, the dispersion curve of the mode excited in the CRIGF. The dispersion curve shows a flat part, where the resonance wavelength is quasi-independent to the angle of incidence, and the flattening grows with the width of the Bragg reflector. We develop an approximate coupled four-wave model, which predicts the extra-flattening as a consequence of an additional coupling of the waveguide modes of the GMRF provided by the Bragg grating, that does not exist in the “doubly periodic” gratings.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
  • (050.5745) Diffraction and gratings : Resonance domain
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures
  • (230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

High-resolution multi-aperture imaging

  • Andrew Harvey, Guillem Carles, Gonzalo Muyo, Nicholas Bustin, and Andrew Wood
  • received 10/02/2014; accepted 01/09/2015; posted 01/13/2015; Doc. ID 224059
  • [full text: PDF (3138) KB)]
  • Abstract: Previous reports have demonstrated that it is possible to emulate the imaging function of a single conventional lens with an NxN array of identical lenslets to provide an N-fold reduction in imaging-system track length. This approach limits the application to low-resolution imaging. We highlight how using an array of dissimilar lenslets, with an array width that can be much wider than the detector array, high-resolution super-resolved imaging is possible. We illustrate this approach with a ray-traced design and optimization of a long-wave infrared system employing a 3x3 array of free-form lenslets to provide a four-fold reduction in track length compared to a baseline system. Simulations of image recovery show that recovered image quality is comparable to that of the baseline

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
  • (110.4190) Imaging systems : Multiple imaging
  • (110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging

Evolution properties of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schellmodel beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis

  • Fei Wang, Lin Liu, Yangjian Cai, and Ziren Zhu
  • received 10/20/2014; accepted 01/06/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 225291
  • [full text: PDF (2168) KB)]
  • Abstract: Analytical expressions for the cross spectral density (CSD) function and the second-order moments of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis are derived. Based on the derived formulae, we study the propagation properties, such as the beam irradiance, the beam diameters and the spectral degree of coherence (SDOC), of a LGCSM beam inside uniaxial crystals in detail. The effect of the initial beam parameters (mode order and spatial coherence length) and the parameters of the uniaxial crystals on the evolution properties of a LGCSM beam is revealed through numerical examples. The uniaxial crystals provide one way to modulate the properties of a LGCSM beam.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (030.4070) Coherence and statistical optics : Modes

Direct, stigmatic, imaging with curved surfaces

  • Johannes Courtial, Stephen Oxburgh, and Tomas Tyc
  • received 11/24/2014; accepted 01/06/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 221153
  • [full text: PDF (248) KB)]
  • Abstract: We study the possibilities of direct (using one intersection with each light ray) stigmatic imaging with a curved surface that can change ray directions in an arbitrary way. By purely geometric arguments we show that the only possible case of such imaging is the trivial one where the image of any point is identical to the point itself and the surface does not perform any change of the ray direction at all. We also discuss an example of a curved surface which performs indirect stigmatic imaging after twice intersecting each light ray.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems

A Reference Data Set For Camera Spectral Sensitivity Estimation

  • Maryam Mohammadzadeh Darrodi, Graham Finlayson, Teresa Goodman, and Michal Mackiewicz
  • received 06/05/2014; accepted 01/05/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 208071
  • [full text: PDF (1518) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this article, we describe a spectral sensitivity measurement procedure at the National Physical laboratory, London, with the aim of obtaining ground-truth spectral sensitivity functions for Nikon D5100 and Sigma SD1 Merill cameras. The novelty of our data is that the potential measurement errors are estimated at each wavelength. We determine how well the measured spectral sensitivity functions represent the actual camera sensitivity functions (as a function of wavelength). The second contribution of this paper is to test the performance of various leading sensor estimation techniques implemented from the literature using measured and synthetic data and also evaluate them based on ground truth data for the two cameras. We conclude that estimation techniques tested are not sufficiently accurate when compared with our measured ground truth data and that there remains significant scope to improve estimation algorithms for spectral estimation. To help in this endeavor we will make all our data available online for the community.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.1490) Detectors : Cameras
  • (120.4140) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Monochromators
  • (120.4820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical systems
  • (150.1488) Machine vision : Calibration

How psychophysical methods influence optimizations of color difference formulae

  • Eric Kirchner, Niels Dekker, Marcel Lucassen, Lan Njo, Ivo van der Lans, Philipp Urban, and Rafael Huertas
  • received 08/26/2014; accepted 01/05/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 221768
  • [full text: PDF (1011) KB)]
  • Abstract: For developing color difference formulae, there are several choices to be made on the psychophysical method used for gathering visual (observer) data. We tested three different psychophysical methods: Grey-scales, Constant Stimuli and Two-Alternative Forced Choice (2AFC). Our results show that when using Grey-scales or Constant Stimuli, assessments of color differences are biased towards lightness differences. This bias is particularly strong in LCD monitor experiments, but also present when using physical samples. No such bias is found when using 2AFC. In that case, however, observer responses are affected by other factors that are not accounted for by current color difference formulae. For accurate prediction of relative color differences, our results show, in agreement with other works, that modern color difference formulae do not perform well. We also investigated if the use of digital images as presented on LCD displays is a good alternative to using physical samples. Our results show that there are systematic differences between these two methods.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (330.1690) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color
  • (330.1730) Vision, color, and visual optics : Colorimetry
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

Quantization Error and Parameter Analysis of Single-lens Prism based Stereovision System

  • kee wei loon, Yading Bai, and kah bin Lim
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 01/04/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 214897
  • [full text: PDF (1293) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, the quantization error and parameters of the single–lens prism based stereovision system are studied in detailed. Each images captured using this system can be divided into two sub-images on the left and right and these sub-images are generated by two virtual cameras which produced by the bi-prism. This stereovision system is equivalent to the conventional two camera system and the two sub-images captured have disparity which can be used to reconstruct the 3D scene. The relative range error of this system is studied with respect to the system parameters which give us a better way to quantify the range resolution of the system and enable the selection of system parameters to become easier.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.2960) Imaging systems : Image analysis
  • (150.6910) Machine vision : Three-dimensional sensing

Thermal-to-visible face recognition using partial least squares

  • Shuowen Hu, Jonghyun Choi, Alex Chan, and William Schwartz
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 01/04/2015; posted 01/12/2015; Doc. ID 214888
  • [full text: PDF (1673) KB)]
  • Abstract: Although visible face recognition has been an active area of research for several decades, cross-modal face recognition has only been explored by the biometrics community rather recently. Thermal-to-visible face recognition is one of the most difficult cross-modal face recognition challenges, due to the difference in phenomenology between thermal and visible imaging modalities. We address the cross-modal recognition problem using a partial least squares (PLS) regression-based approach consisting of preprocessing, feature extraction, and PLS model building. The preprocessing and feature extraction stages are designed to reduce the modality gap between the thermal and visible facial signatures, and facilitate the subsequent one-vs-all PLS-based model building. We incorporate multi-modal information into the PLS model building stage to enhance cross-modal recognition. We evaluate the performance of the proposed recognition algorithm on three challenging datasets containing visible and thermal imagery acquired under different experimental scenarios: time-lapse, physical tasks, mental tasks, and subject-to-camera range. These scenarios represent difficult challenges relevant to real world applications. We demonstrate that the proposed method performs robustly for the examined scenarios.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (100.5010) Image processing : Pattern recognition
  • (150.0150) Machine vision : Machine vision
  • (150.1135) Machine vision : Algorithms

December


New numerical scheme for the modal method based on subsectionnal Gegenbauer polynomial expansion: Application to biperiodic binary grating

  • Kofi EDEE and jean-pierre Plumey
  • received 09/18/2014; accepted 12/30/2014; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 222368
  • [full text: PDF (702) KB)]
  • Abstract: The modal method based on Gegenbauer polynomials (MMGE) is extended to the case of bidimensionnal binary gratings. A new concept of modified polynomials is introduced in order to take into account boundary conditions and also to make the method more flexible in use. In the previous versions of MMGE, an undersized matrix relation is obtained by solving Maxwell’s equations and the boundary conditions complement this undersized system. In the current work, contrary to this previous version of the MMGE, boundary conditions are incorporated to the definition of a new basis of polynomial functions which are adapted to the boundary value problem that is in interest. Results are successfully compared for both metallic and dielectric structures to those obtained from the modal method based on Fourier expansion (MMFE) and MMFE with adaptative spatial resolution (ASR).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings

Correlation between the phase and the log-amplitude of a wave through the vertical atmospheric propagation

  • Guillaume Molodij
  • received 10/15/2014; accepted 12/29/2014; posted 01/21/2015; Doc. ID 225044
  • [full text: PDF (568) KB)]
  • Abstract: Expressions of the correlation between the log-amplitude and the phase of a wavefront propagating through the atmospheric turbulence are presented. These expressions are useful to evaluate the feasibility of proposed methods to increase the confidence level of the detection of faint transient astronomical objects. The properties of the derived angular correlation functions are discussed using usual synthetic turbulence profiles. The close formulation between the phase and the log-amplitude allows an analytic formulation in the Rytov approximation. Equations contain the product of an arbitrary number of hypergeometric functions that are evaluated using the Mellin transforms integration method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
  • (010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation

Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution

  • peng shi, Shi-Cheng Zhao, Yong-jian Gu, and Wen-Dong Li
  • received 09/26/2014; accepted 12/27/2014; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 223537
  • [full text: PDF (1163) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the optical absorption and scattering properties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater free space quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo method, we obtain the attenuation of photons, the fidelity of the scattered photons, the quantum bit error rate and the sifted key generation rate of underwater quantum communication. It can be observed from our simulations that the most secure single photon underwater free space QKD is feasible in the clearest ocean water.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
  • (270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography

Differential Mueller matrix of a depolarizing homogeneous medium and its relation to the Mueller matrix logarithm

  • Razvigor Ossikovski and Antonello De Martino
  • received 10/13/2014; accepted 12/12/2014; posted 12/15/2014; Doc. ID 224810
  • [full text: PDF (432) KB)]
  • Abstract: The different z-dependence and non-commutativity of the two components of the differential Mueller matrix of a homogeneous depolarizing medium prevent from its formal identification with the Mueller matrix logarithm. By using a classic linear differential equation expansion, we advance a procedure for the extraction of the elementary polarization properties, in terms of mean values and variances - covariances, from the Mueller matrix logarithm. The approximate solution, based on the immediate identification of the differential matrix with the matrix logarithm, turns out to remain satisfactory up to relatively high depolarization levels. Physically interpreted experimental examples from the literature illustrate the formal developments.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (260.2130) Physical optics : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization

Creation of a 50,000λ long needle-like field with 0.36λ width: comment

  • Sabino Chavez-Cerda and Jixiong Pu
  • received 09/15/2014; accepted 12/08/2014; posted 12/09/2014; Doc. ID 223032
  • [full text: PDF (563) KB)]
  • Abstract: In a recent paper, a method for the generation of a long, narrow needle of light was proposed [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 500 (2014)]. The authors missed some fundamental aspects of the mathematical physics of cylindrical electromagnetic waves described by Bessel functions that are essential to obtain the desired result. Also, their solution of the wave field lacks the component of longitudinal energy flow that is needed for most of the applications they suggest. We show that a minor modification solves this absence with practically negligible increase of the needle width.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (070.3185) Fourier optics and signal processing : Invariant optical fields
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Effective and Efficient Subjective Testing of Texture Similarity Metrics

  • Thrasyvoulos Pappas, Jana Zujovic, David Neuhoff, Rene van Egmond, and Huib de Ridder
  • received 09/05/2014; accepted 12/06/2014; posted 12/09/2014; Doc. ID 222487
  • [full text: PDF (3159) KB)]
  • Abstract: The development and testing of objective texture similarity metrics that agree with human judgments of texture similarity require, in general, extensive subjective tests. The effectiveness and efficiency of such tests depend on a careful analysis of the abilities of human perception and the application requirements. The focus of this paper is on defining performance requirements and testing procedures for objective texture similarity metrics. We identify three operating domains for evaluating the performance of a similarity metric: the ability to retrieve "identical" textures; the top of the similarity scale, where a monotonic relationship between metric values and subjective scores is desired; and the ability to distinguish between perceptually similar and dissimilar textures. Each domain has different performance goals and requires different testing procedures. For the third domain, we propose ViSiProG, a new Visual Similarity by Progressive Grouping procedure for conducting subjective experiments that organizes a texture database into clusters of visually similar images. The grouping is based on visual blending, and greatly simplifies labeling image pairs as similar or dissimilar. ViSiProG collects subjective data in an efficient and effective manner, so that a relatively large database of textures can be accommodated. Experimental results and comparisons with structural texture similarity metrics demonstrate both the effectiveness of the proposed subjective testing procedure and the performance of the metrics.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
  • (330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
  • (330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision
  • (110.3925) Imaging systems : Metrics
  • (100.4995) Image processing : Pattern recognition, metrics

November


An efficient PILE algorithm for solving the scattering from three-dimensional (3-D) nested homogeneous dielectric bodies with arbitrarily shape

  • Sami BELLEZ, Christophe Bourlier, and Gildas Kubicke
  • received 09/16/2014; accepted 11/26/2014; posted 01/12/2015; Doc. ID 223281
  • [full text: PDF (578) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper deals with the evaluation of ElectroMagnetic (EM) scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) structure consisting of two nested homogeneous dielectric bodies with arbitrary shape. The scattering problem is formulated in terms of a set of Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu (PMCHW) integral equations that are afterwards converted into a system of linear equations (impedance matrix equation) by applying the Galerkin Method of Moments (MoM) with Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) basis functions. The MoM matrix equation is then solved by deploying the iterative PILE (Propagation Inside-Layer Expansion) method in order to obtain the unknown surface current densities which are thereafter used to handle the Radar Cross Section (RCS) patterns. Some numerical results for various structures including canonical geometries are presented and compared with those of the FEKO software in order to validate the PILE-based approach as well as to show its efficiency to analyze the full-polarized RCS patterns.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization

A variant of the region-scalable fitting energy for image segmentation

  • Zhi Xu, Ting-Zhu Huang, Hui Wang, and Chuanlong Wang
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 11/18/2014; posted 01/21/2015; Doc. ID 213553
  • [full text: PDF (1474) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper presents a variant of the level set function based on region-scalable fitting (RSF) model for segmenting a given image into different parts. In consideration of the image local characteristics, the RSF model can efficiently and effectively segment images with intensity inhomogeneity. Instead of utilizing $n$ level set functions to define up to $2^n$ phases in the RSF model, our mothod presents a piecewise constant level set formulation for image segmentation and each phase is represented by a unique constant value. In addition, our model avoids different segmentation results caused by different initializations. The energy functional of our method is locally differentiable and convex because of not using the non-differentiable Heaviside and Delta functions. Comparative experiment results demonstrate our method is much more computationally. Moreover, our algorithm is robust with the destructive noise.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (110.2970) Imaging systems : Image detection systems

February


(CV) Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance

  • Bonnie Cooper and Barry Lee
  • received 09/30/2013; accepted 02/02/2014; posted 02/03/2014; Doc. ID 198653
  • [full text: PDF (1336) KB)]
  • Abstract: Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment with matching or mismatching (contrast polarity or modality) grating pairs that were adjusted to detection threshold. Thresholds with mismatched pairs were significantly elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of contrast pedestals. For in-phase pedestal conditions, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions. This suggests that luminance can overrule chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
  • (330.6100) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial discrimination

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