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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

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Articles 1 to 20 of 27 Next Page >>

September


Propagation velocity of surface polariton

  • S. R. Seshadri
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 09/23/2014; posted 09/24/2014; Doc. ID 213325
  • [full text: PDF (406) KB)]
  • Abstract: The concept of irreversible and reversible powers and that of real and reactive powers are developed with particular reference to the surface polariton. The characteristics of the surface polariton excited by a current source are obtained. The limitations of the various propagation velocities are examined. It is shown that in the frequency range where the surface polariton is transparent, a physically meaningful transport velocity or equivalently wave packet velocity does not exists. © 2014 Optical Society of America

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (260.2160) Physical optics : Energy transfer

Light scattering by magnetoelectrically gyrotropic sphere with unit relative permittivity and relative permeability

  • A. D. Jafri and Akhlesh Lakhtakia
  • received 06/04/2014; accepted 09/23/2014; posted 09/24/2014; Doc. ID 213434
  • [full text: PDF (300) KB)]
  • Abstract: An exact transition matrix was formulated for electromagnetic scattering by a sphere made of a magnetoelectrically gyrotropic material with unit relative permittivity and relative permeability. Both the total scattering and forward scattering efficiencies are lower when the magnetoelectric gyrotropy vector of the sphere is co/anti-parallel to the electric field or magnetic field of an incident plane wave than when the magnetoelectric gyrotropy vector is parallel to the propagation vector of the incident plane wave. Backscattering is absent when the propagation vector is co/anti-parallel to the magnetoelectric gyrotropy vector.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory

On the general properties of symmetric incomplete Airy beams

  • R. Jauregui and P. Quinto-Su
  • received 08/28/2014; accepted 09/23/2014; posted 09/24/2014; Doc. ID 221884
  • [full text: PDF (4412) KB)]
  • Abstract: We study the general properties of a class of Airy beams symmetric under reflection of the transverse coordinates. Following a recent proposal, their angular spectra depend on the absolute value of the third power of the transverse components of the wave vector. The proposed beams are shown to be described by symmetric superpositions of incomplete Airy special functions. Their angular spectra do not correspond to any of those described by %the smooth spectra of standard catastrophe optics. However, the morphologies of the symmetric beams are similar to some of those already classified within that scheme, differing mainly on the scaling exponents. Finally, the structural stability of three dimensional symmetric incomplete Airy beams is experimentally probed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Blurred and Noisy Images Pairs in Parallel Optics

  • Iftach Klapp, Nir Sochen, and David Mendlovic
  • received 03/20/2014; accepted 09/22/2014; posted 09/23/2014; Doc. ID 208276
  • [full text: PDF (574) KB)]
  • Abstract: In previous works we have shown that Parallel Optics (PO) architecture can be used to improve the system matrix condition, which results in improving its immunity to additive noise in the image restoration process. Parallel Optics is composed of a “main” system and an “auxiliary” system. Previously, we suggested the “trajectories” method to realize the Parallel Optics. In that method, a required “auxiliary” system is composed from “auxiliary” optics with a pixel confined response, followed by signal processing. In this paper, we emphasize the important secondary effects of the “trajectories” method. We show that in such a system, where the post processing comes after the detection, the post-processing acts as a noise filter, hence allowing to work with noisy data in the “auxiliary” channel. Roughly speaking, the SNR of an imaging system depends on the Numerical Aperture (NA). It follows that the “main” system, which typically has higher NA, also has higher SNR. Hence in the PO system, the ratio between the NA values of the “main” and “auxiliary” systems is expected to dictate the gap between their SNR values. In this paper, we show that when the system is implemented by the “trajectories” method, this expectation is too conservative. It is shown that due to the noise filtering, the “auxiliary” system can be noisier than expected. This claim is proved analytically, and verified and exemplified by using experimental measurements.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.6110) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial filtering
  • (080.1010) Geometric optics : Aberrations (global)
  • (100.3190) Image processing : Inverse problems
  • (170.3010) Medical optics and biotechnology : Image reconstruction techniques

Development of spot size and lateral intensity distribution generated by exponential, logarithmic and linear axicons

  • Brahim Chebbi and Ilya Golub
  • received 06/25/2014; accepted 09/22/2014; posted 09/23/2014; Doc. ID 213979
  • [full text: PDF (1085) KB)]
  • Abstract: Axicons are known to produce a nearly Bessel beam transverse intensity distribution. It has been previously recognized that linear axicons and logarithmic axicons with a predefined distant depth of field (DOF) and no blocking, present a development region characterized by thickening of the central spot size. In this paper we aim to obtain a better insight on the formation of light distribution in this development region. We also examine the spot size and lateral intensity distribution of the recently developed exponential axicon. We present experiments and detailed non-paraxial numerical simulations for a plane wave passing through these optical elements and show that the lateral intensity distribution they generate differs from that of a regular axicon. This anomaly/irregularity in the formation of a quasi-non-diffracting Bessel beam has to be taken into account in applications of these axicons such as imaging or optical trapping.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

Relating Wavefront Error, Apodization and the Optical Transfer Function: On-axis Case

  • Jim Schwiegerling
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 09/22/2014; posted 09/23/2014; Doc. ID 214997
  • [full text: PDF (655) KB)]
  • Abstract: The incoherent Optical Transfer Function (OTF) describes contrast degradation and phase shifts of sinusoidal objects of all spatial frequencies and orientations. The OTF is calculated as either an autocorrelation of the pupil function or as the Fourier transform of the Point Spread Function. Even with fast algorithms, these calculations can be slow for a densely sampled pupil. Here, a linear expansion of the OTF is developed in which the expansion coefficients are related to the wavefront error and apodization coefficients. The advantage of such a representation is that the OTF can be quickly generated from parameters of the optical system.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3870) General : Mathematics
  • (110.4850) Imaging systems : Optical transfer functions
  • (220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)
  • (220.1230) Optical design and fabrication : Apodization

The Atomic Lighthouse Effect

  • C. Máximo, R. Kaiser, Ph. Courteille, and R. Bachelard
  • received 07/29/2014; accepted 09/22/2014; posted 09/23/2014; Doc. ID 219885
  • [full text: PDF (623) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This ``lighthouse' effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
  • (020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
  • (020.7490) Atomic and molecular physics : Zeeman effect
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering

Fully-Vectorial Modeling of Cylindrical Microresonators with Aperiodic Fourier Modal Method

  • Ying Li, Haitao Liu, Hongwei Jia, Fang Bo, Guoquan Zhang, and Jingjun Xu
  • received 07/23/2014; accepted 09/19/2014; posted 09/19/2014; Doc. ID 217498
  • [full text: PDF (5057) KB)]
  • Abstract: An approach for fully-vectorial modeling of cylindrical resonators based on the aperiodic Fourier modal method (a-FMM) is proposed. The approach allows efficient and accurate calculations of the resonant wavelength, the quality factor, and the field of the whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) of rotationally-symmetric resonators. The validity and the efficiency of the method are confirmed by the converged numerical results with microdisk and microring resonators as examples in comparison with other approaches.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods

Two electric fifield Monte Carlo models of coherent back scattering of polarized light

  • Alexander Doronin, Andrew Radosevich, Vadim Backman, and Igor Meglinski
  • received 05/30/2014; accepted 09/17/2014; posted 09/17/2014; Doc. ID 212817
  • [full text: PDF (905) KB)]
  • Abstract: Modeling of coherent polarized light propagation in turbid scattering medium by Monte Carlo method provides an ultimate understanding of coherent effects of multiple scattering, such as enhancement of coherent backscattering, and peculiarities of laser speckle formation in Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) diagnostic modalities. In this report, we consider two major ways of modeling of the coherent polarized light propagation in scattering tissue-like turbid media. The first approach is based on tracking transformations of the electric fifield along ray propagation. The second one is developed in analogy to the iterative procedure of the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. To achieve a higher accuracy in the results and to speed up the modeling, both codes utilizes the implementation of parallel computing on the NVIDIA Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). We compare these two approaches by simulation of the enhancement of coherent back-scattering of polarized light and evaluate the accuracy of each technique with the results of a known analytical solution. The advantages and disadvantages of each computational approach and their further developments are discussed. Both codes are available online and are ready for immediate use or download.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.1350) Scattering : Backscattering
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.5890) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated
  • (290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization

On correlation lengths of thermal electromagnetic fields in equilibrium and out of equilibrium conditions

  • Illarion Dorofeyev
  • received 07/16/2014; accepted 09/16/2014; posted 09/17/2014; Doc. ID 217161
  • [full text: PDF (640) KB)]
  • Abstract: Spatial coherence of thermal fields in far- and near-field zones generated by heated half-space into vacuum is studied at essentially different thermodynamical conditions. It is shown that correlation lengths of fields in any field zone are different in equilibrium and out of equilibrium systems. In wide range of distances from a sample surface, the correlation functions are should be calculated using a total sum of evanescent and propagating contributions due to their mutual compensation at some conditions because of anticorrelations. It is demonstrated that correlation lengths as calculated with a proposed formula are in agreement with a behavior of correlation functions of thermal fields in spectral range of surface excitations.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (290.6815) Scattering : Thermal emission

Analysis of pulse front tilt in simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing

  • Site Zhang, Daniel Asoubar, Robert Kammel, Stefan Nolte, and Frank Wyrowski
  • received 07/22/2014; accepted 09/15/2014; posted 09/16/2014; Doc. ID 217396
  • [full text: PDF (913) KB)]
  • Abstract: Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) gains enormous interest to control the focal region of ultrashort pulses in the material processing community. In this paper we provide theoretical insight in the nature of SSTF. We use numerical simulations to propagate the initial pulse through the focusing lens and into the focal region. By that we can investigate the appearance of the pulse front tilt (PFT) which has been experimentally obtained in SSTF. This is further deepened by a mathematical investigation which shows that PFT is a fundamental consequence of SSTF. Next we follow the idea to use an initial PFT in order to influence or even compensate the PFT in the focal region. Again that is done by simulations as well as mathematical investigations. We found that an initial PFT cannot significantly influence the phase front tilt in the focal region.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping
  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses

Optimum phase-shift in quantitative phase volume measurement

  • Mohammad Reza Jafarfard, Behnam Tayebi, Seungrag Lee, Dug Young Kim, and Yoon-Sung Bae
  • received 07/23/2014; accepted 09/15/2014; posted 09/16/2014; Doc. ID 217490
  • [full text: PDF (2243) KB)]
  • Abstract: Volume measurement of a phase object is one of the most distinctive capabilities of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM). However, the accuracy of a measured volume is limited by the different noises of a measurement system, finite band-pass filter used in phase extraction algorithm. In this paper, we analyze the inherent errors in volume measurement with QPM and propose the optimum condition that can minimize these errors. We found that phase information of a sample in frequency domain nonlinearly oscillates as a function of the phase-shift correspond to the sample and its medium and the phase information of a sample inside the band-pass filter can be maximized by a proper phase-shift. Through numerical simulations and actual experiments, we demonstrate that the error in phase volume measurement can be effectively reduced by the enhancement of phase signal inside band-pass region using an optimum amount of phase that can be controlled by either changing medium index or wavelength of illumination.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
  • (090.5694) Holography : Real-time holography

Generating optical freeform surfaces considering both coordinates and normals of discrete data points

  • Jun Zhu, Xiaofei Wu, Tong Yang, and Guofan Jin
  • received 07/16/2014; accepted 09/15/2014; posted 09/16/2014; Doc. ID 216988
  • [full text: PDF (2073) KB)]
  • Abstract: Through direct design methods, both coordinates and normals of discrete data points on a freeform surface are usually obtained, but traditionally the freeform surface is generated by only fitting the coordinates. In this paper, a novel generating method that fits both the coordinates and the normals is proposed based on the mathematical multi-objective optimization theory. This new method suits for generating some freeform polynomial surfaces. Two design examples are introduced, and their optical performances are well improved when applying the new method compared with the traditional method. This new method is validated to be effective, and it is widely useful as long as the coordinates and the normals are provided in advance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.2740) Optical design and fabrication : Geometric optical design
  • (080.4225) Geometric optics : Nonspherical lens design

Discovering Intrinsic Properties of Human Observers’ Visual Search and Mathematical Observers’ Scanning

  • Xin He, Frank Samuelson, Rongping Zeng, and Berkman Sahiner
  • received 04/01/2014; accepted 09/12/2014; posted 09/16/2014; Doc. ID 208633
  • [full text: PDF (975) KB)]
  • Abstract: There is a lack of consensus in measuring observer performance in search tasks. To pursue a consensus, we set our goal as to obtain metrics that are practical, meaningful and predictive. We consider a metric practical if it can be implemented to measure human and computer observers’ performance. To be meaningful, we propose to discover intrinsic properties of search observers and formulate the metrics to characterize these properties. If the discovered properties allow verifiable predictions, we consider them predictive. We propose a theory and a conjecture toward two intrinsic properties of search observers: rationality in classification as measured by the location-known-exactly (LKE) ROC curve and location uncertainty as measured by the effective set size (M*). These two properties are used to develop search models in both single-response and free-response search tasks. To confirm whether these properties are “intrinsic”, we investigate their ability in predicting search performance of both human and scanning channelized Hotelling observers. In particular, for each observer, we designed experiments to measure the LKE ROC curve and M*, which were then used to predict the same observer’s performance in other search tasks. The predictions were then compared to the experimentally measured observer performance. Our results indicate that modeling the search performance using the LKE ROC curve and M* leads to successful predictions in most cases.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
  • (330.1880) Vision, color, and visual optics : Detection
  • (330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

Multi-Frequency Bayesian CS Methods for Microwave Imaging

  • Lorenzo Poli, Giacomo Oliveri, Ping Ping Ding, Toshifumi Moriyama, and Andrea Massa
  • received 07/22/2014; accepted 09/11/2014; posted 09/12/2014; Doc. ID 217433
  • [full text: PDF (490) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Bayesian retrieval of sparse scatterers under multi-frequency transverse magnetic illuminations is addressed. Two innovative imaging strategies are formulated to process the spectral content of microwave scattering data according to either a frequency-hopping multi-step scheme or a multi-frequency one-shot scheme. To solve the associated inverse problems, customized implementations of the single-task (ST) and the multi-task (MT) Bayesian Compressive Sensing (BCS) are introduced. A set of representative numerical results is discussed to assess the effectiveness and the robustness against the noise of the proposed techniques also in comparison with some state-of-the-art deterministic strategies.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
  • (110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging
  • (110.6955) Imaging systems : Tomographic imaging
  • (110.3010) Imaging systems : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (100.3200) Image processing : Inverse scattering

Crossover from spherical particle Mie scattering to circular aperture diffraction

  • William Heinson, Amitabha Chakrabarti, and Christopher Sorensen
  • received 06/17/2014; accepted 09/08/2014; posted 09/08/2014; Doc. ID 214134
  • [full text: PDF (648) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper demonstrates the manner in which the Mie results for light scattering by a three-dimensional sphere of arbitrary size and refractive index crosses over to Fraunhofer diffraction by a two-dimensional circular aperture of the same radius in the limit of very large radius. Demonstration is feasible only because the graphical results are plotted in the manner of the Q-space analysis which plots scattered intensity versus the logarithm of the magnitude of the scattering wave vector rather than linear versus the scattering angle.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory

Energy Redistribution Signatures in Transmission Microscopy of Rayleigh- and Mie-particles

  • Markus Selmke and Frank Cichos
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 09/05/2014; posted 09/05/2014; Doc. ID 212638
  • [full text: PDF (2618) KB)]
  • Abstract: We describe the transmission characteristics for the interaction of an arbitrary beam with (possibly multilayered) particles of arbitrary size and electric permeability. Within the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, expressions which generalize the total cross-sections to their fractional counterparts are presented which allow for an analytic quantification of transmission signals, both on-axis and off-axis. For Gaussian (Davis) beams, the relative angular domain of collection as compared to the beam's angle of divergence determines sensitively the shape and magnitude of the interference signal. Depending on the particle's position within the beam, the transmission signatures related to a pure energy redistribution as well as to accompanying absorption are discussed for Rayleigh particles in terms of their complex-valued polarizability. Implications for positioning, temperature control, spectroscopy and optimized extinction measurements are discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
  • (180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
  • (290.2200) Scattering : Extinction
  • (290.3030) Scattering : Index measurements
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory

Improved nonparaxial accelerating beams due to additional off-axis spiral phase

  • Wenguo Zhu and Weilong She
  • received 07/07/2014; accepted 09/05/2014; posted 09/05/2014; Doc. ID 216480
  • [full text: PDF (3555) KB)]
  • Abstract: The accelerating beam with Gaussian transverse profile can preserve its shape while propagating along a quarter of a circle. When an off-axis spiral phase is endowed, however, the beam will have an additional acceleration perpendicular to the circle. A 2D accelerating beam is constructed and is found that it accelerates along both x and y directions but its transverse intensity profile cannot keep well due to the interaction of accelerations along different directions. The intensity profile can be improved by imposing two off-axis spiral phases onto the input beam.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (080.4865) Geometric optics : Optical vortices
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Propagation Evolution of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam

  • Yang Li, Zhuqing Zhu, Xiaolei Wang, Liping Gong, Ming Wang, and Shouping Nie
  • received 06/17/2014; accepted 09/05/2014; posted 09/08/2014; Doc. ID 214067
  • [full text: PDF (942) KB)]
  • Abstract: The propagation characteristics of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam (OHCVB) have been studied in this paper. The analytic expressions for the electric field and intensity distribution of OHCVB propagating in free space are presented for the first time. The transverse intensity of OHCVB, different from that of the input Gaussian beam, are not axially symmetric distribution owing to a slight dislocation between the polarization singularity located in vector field generator and the center point of Gaussian beam. Numerical results show that the intensity distribution in propagation strongly depends on propagation distance, dislocation displacement and topological charge. Accompanied by beam expansion, the intensity distribution of OHCVB tends to be steady eventually and the dark core of vector beam will disappear gradually in the process of propagation. Moreover, with the increase of the topological charge, more energy will be transferred from x-axis to y-axis and the annular intensity is split into two parts along the y-axis direction. The results help us to investigate the dynamic propagation behaviors of the high-order cylindrical vector beam under the off-axis condition, and also guide the calibration of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector field in practice.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

PAINTER: a spatio-spectral image reconstruction algorithm for optical interferometry

  • Antony Schutz, André Ferrari, David Mary, Férréol Soulez, Eric Thiebaut, and Martin Vannier
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 09/04/2014; posted 09/04/2014; Doc. ID 213309
  • [full text: PDF (1437) KB)]
  • Abstract: Astronomical optical interferometers sample the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution of a source at the observation wavelength. Because of rapid perturbations caused by atmospheric turbulence, the phases of the complex Fourier samples (visibilities) cannot be directly exploited. Consequently, specific image reconstruction methods have been devised in the last few decades. Modern polychromatic optical interferometric instruments are now paving the way to multiwavelength imaging. This paper is devoted to the derivation of a spatio-spectral (3D) image reconstruction algorithm, coined PAINTER (Polychromatic opticAl INTErferometric Reconstruction software). The algorithm relies on an iterative process, which alternates estimation of polychromatic images and of complex visibilities. The complex visibilities are not only estimated from squared moduli and closure phases, but also differential phases, which helps to better constrain the polychromatic reconstruction. Simulations on synthetic data illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm and in particular the relevance of injecting a differential phases model in the reconstruction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3190) Image processing : Inverse problems
  • (100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
  • (100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
  • (100.3175) Image processing : Interferometric imaging

Articles 1 to 20 of 27 Next Page >>





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