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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

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August


Comprehensively characterizing the ophthalmic freeform lenses with contour plots and astigmatic axis

  • Linling Qin, Lin Qian, and Jingchi Yu
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/19/2014; Doc. ID 213607
  • [full text: PDF (1810) KB)]
  • Abstract: An accurate evaluating method is proposed for comprehensively characterizing the ophthalmic freeform lenses (OFLs) by computing the curvatures of the freeform surface at arbitrary direction in the transformed Cartesian coordinates based on space analytic geometry. Especially, the proposed method could give out the astigmatic axis which is an indispensable characteristics for OFLs. A designed OFL with analytical formula is characterized by our comprehensive method, not only with the power and astigmatism contour plots which are consistent with the results from the conventional method, but also with the astigmatic axis which can be analytically confirmed by combining conventional quadratic equation with directional derivatives. Benefited from the astigmatic axis, the comprehensive method could give out the combined astigmatism of both surfaces for the double OFLs, which is unavailable for the conventional method. The evaluating results of a double OFL are also presented and can be experimentally verified by fabrication and measurement. This might provide a new idea and a more comprehensive methodology of evaluating OFLs with high precision.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.3620) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Lens system design
  • (220.1250) Optical design and fabrication : Aspherics
  • (220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
  • (220.4840) Optical design and fabrication : Testing
  • (230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
  • (330.4460) Vision, color, and visual optics : Ophthalmic optics and devices

Crossbeam scintillations in non-Kolmogorov medium

  • Yahya Baykal
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 08/16/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 214994
  • [full text: PDF (388) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the collimated and focused crossbeams, the on-axis scintillation index is evaluated when these beams propagate in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. In the limiting cases, our solution correctly reduces to the known Gaussian beam scintillations in Kolmogorov turbulence. For both the collimated and the focused crossbeams, large power law exponent of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence is found to result in larger scintillations. Evaluating at a fixed power law exponent, the scintillation index of the collimated (focused) crossbeam is higher (lower) than the collimated (focused) Gaussian beam scintillation index. When the asymmetry of the collimated (focused) crossbeam increases, the scintillations increase (decrease). At a given crossbeam configuration, change in the turbulence parameters varies the scintillations in the same manner for all power law exponent values.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
  • (010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
  • (290.5930) Scattering : Scintillation

Local transformation leading to an efficient Fourier Modal Method for perfectly conducting gratings

  • Simon Félix, Agnes Maurel, and Jean François Mercier
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/20/2014; Doc. ID 214623
  • [full text: PDF (1765) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present an efficient Fourier modal method for the wave scattering by perfectly conducting gratings (in the two polarizations). The method uses a geometrical transformation, similar to the one used in the C-method, which transforms the grating surface into a flat surface, thus avoiding to question the Rayleigh hypothesis; also, the transformation only affects a bounded inner region which naturally matches the outer region; this allows to apply a simple criterion to select the ingoing and outgoing waves. The method is shown to satisfy the reciprocity and the energy conservation and it has an exponential rate of convergence for regular groove shapes. Besides, it is shown that the size of the inner region, where the solution is computed, can be reduced to the groove depth, that is to the minimal computation domain.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods

Quantitative coupled-mode model for the metal-dielectric-metal waveguide with a side-coupled cavity

  • Ying Zhong, Hongkun Zhou, and Haitao Liu
  • received 06/12/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 213998
  • [full text: PDF (535) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Fabry-Perot model is proposed to analyze the wavelength-selective transmission behaviors of the metal-dielectric-metal waveguide with a rectangular side-coupled cavity. The guided modes propagating in the waveguide and the cavity are extracted by the aperiodic Fourier modal method. The coefficients of the model calculated by the normal-mode theory and by solving the S-matrix. The applications of such structure in the wavelength-selective filter and the refractive index sensor are also discussed. Our model is shown to be able to accurately predict the fully-vectorial data and thus can provide the reliable and quantitative analysis of this kind of devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2230) Diffraction and gratings : Fabry-Perot
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures
  • (230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

A Solution to the Bundle-to-Bundle Mapping Problem of Geometric Optics Using Four Freeform Reflectors

  • Christopher Croke and R. Hicks
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 213116
  • [full text: PDF (20704) KB)]
  • Abstract: Here we present a method for the coupled design of four free-form reflective surfaces which will control a bundle of rays. By this we mean that given an input bundle of rays, we can construct an optical system that will map it to a given output bundle, where a ray to ray correspondence is realized as per the prescribed data. The method makes use of the Cartan-Kahler theorem of Exterior Differential Systems. Sample imaging applications are given.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
  • (080.2720) Geometric optics : Mathematical methods (general)
  • (080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
  • (080.4035) Geometric optics : Mirror system design
  • (080.4228) Geometric optics : Nonspherical mirror surfaces

Numerical ray tracing methods for eccentric radial gradient-index rod lenses

  • Shuma Horiuchi, Shuhei Yoshida, and Manabu Yamamoto
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 213299
  • [full text: PDF (454) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a ray tracing method for a radial gradient-index (GRIN) rod lens with eccentric refractive index distribution. Radial GRIN rod lenses are typically treated as being rotationally symmetric around the optical axis. However, some manufacturing techniques can introduce eccentricity in the refractive index distribution, and the effect of eccentricity on the lens performance cannot be neglected in some cases. Ray tracing in an eccentric refractive index distribution is possible by extending the conventional method. This allows analysis of the imaging performance of a radial GRIN rod lenses with eccentric refractive index distribution. Since the proposed method builds on the conventional formalism for a rotationally symmetric refractive index distribution, it is simple and easy to implement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
  • (110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
  • (080.1753) Geometric optics : Computation methods

Wave propagation analysis using the variance matrix

  • Richa Sharma, J Ivan, and C Narayanamurthy
  • received 04/18/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 210034
  • [full text: PDF (581) KB)]
  • Abstract: The propagation of a coherent laser wave-field through a pseudo random phase plate is studied using the variance matrix estimated from the Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensor data. The uncertainty principle is used as a tool in discriminating the data obtained from the Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensor. Quantities of physical interest such as the twist parameter, and the symplectic eigenvalues are estimated from the wavefront sensor measurements. A distance measure between two variance matrices is introduced and used to estimate the spatial asymmetry of a wave-field in the experiment. The estimated quantities are then used to compare a distorted wave-field with its undistorted counterpart.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

A coated sphere scattering by Geometrical Optics Approximation

  • Zhai Mengran, Lu Qieni, Zhang Hongxia, and Zhang Yinxin
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 212216
  • [full text: PDF (737) KB)]
  • Abstract: A new geometric-optics model has been developed for the calculation of light scattering by a coated sphere, and the analytic expression for scattering is presented according to whether rays hit the core or not. The ray of various GOA terms is parameterized by the number of reflections in coating/core interface, the coating/medium interface, and the number of chords in the core, with the degeneracy path and repeated path terms considered for the rays striking the core, which simplifies the calculation. For the ray missing striking the core, the various GOA terms is dealt with by a homogeneous sphere. The incidence angle corresponding to the scattering angle is solved. The scattering intensity of coated particles are calculated and then compared with those of Debye Series and Aden-Kerker theory. The consistency of the results proves the validity of the method proposed in this paper.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory

Photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium bounded externally or internally by an infinitely long circular cylindrical applicator. VI. Time-domain Analysis

  • Daqing Piao
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/10/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 213125
  • [full text: PDF (1739) KB)]
  • Abstract: Part VI analytically examines time-domain (TD) photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium enclosed by a “concave” circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a “convex” circular cylindrical applicator, both geometries being infinite in the longitudinal dimension. The aim is to assess characteristics of TD photon diffusion, in response to a spatially and temporally impulsive source, versus the line-of-sight source-detector distance along the azimuthal or longitudinal direction on the concave or convex medium-applicator interface. By comparing to their counterparts evaluated along a straight line on a semi-infinite medium-applicator interface versus the same source-detector distance, the following patterns are indicated: (1) the peak photon fluence rate is always reached sooner in concave and later in convex geometry; (2) the peak photon fluence rate decreases slower along the azimuthal and faster along the longitudinal direction on the concave interface, and conversely on the convex interface; (3) the total photon fluence decreases slower along the azimuthal and faster along the longitudinal direction on the concave interface, and conversely on the convex interface; (4) the ratio between the peak photon fluence rate and the total fluence is always greater in concave geometry and smaller in convex geometry. The total fluence is equivalent to the steady-state photon fluence analyzed in Part I. The patterns of peak fluence rate, time to reaching peak fluence rate, and the ratio of these two, correspond to those of AC amplitude, phase, and modulation depth of frequency-domain results demonstrated in Part IV.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
  • (170.5280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon migration
  • (170.6960) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tomography

On the Intensity Distribution Function of Blazed Diffraction Gratings

  • R. Casini and P. Nelson
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 08/07/2014; posted 08/20/2014; Doc. ID 213341
  • [full text: PDF (363) KB)]
  • Abstract: We derive from first principles the expression for the angular/wavelength distribution of the intensity diffracted by a blazed reflective grating, according to a scalar theory of diffraction. We considered the most common case of a groove profile with rectangular apex. Our derivation correctly identifies the geometric parameters of a blazed reflective grating that determine its diffraction efficiency, and fixes an incorrect but commonly adopted expression in the literature. We compare the predictions of this scalar theory with those resulting from a rigorous vector treatment of diffraction from one-dimensional blazed reflective gratings.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing

Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging system

  • John Hunt, Jonah Gollub, Tom Driscoll, Guy Lipworth, Alex Mrozack, Matt Reynolds, David Brady, and David Smith
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/06/2014; posted 08/07/2014; Doc. ID 211560
  • [full text: PDF (7162) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate a microwave imaging system that combines advances in metamaterial aperture design with emerging computational imaging techniques. The flexibility inherent to guided wave, complementary metamaterials enables the design of a planar antenna that illuminates a scene with dramatically varying radiation patterns as a function of frequency. As frequency is swept over the K-band (17.5-26.5 GHz), a sequence of pseudo-random radiation patterns interrogates a scene. Measurements of the return signal versus frequency are then acquired, and the scene is reconstructed using computational imaging methods. The low-cost, frequency-diverse static aperture allows three-dimensional images to be formed without mechanical scanning or dynamic beam-forming elements. The metamaterial aperture is complementary to a variety of computational imaging schemes, and can be used in conjunction with other sensors to form a multifunctional imaging platform. We illustrate the potential of multi-sensor fusion by integrating an infrared structured-light and optical image sensor to accelerate the mm-wave scene reconstruction, and to provide a simultaneous visualization of the scene.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.2910) Holography : Holography, microwave
  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation
  • (110.3010) Imaging systems : Image reconstruction techniques

Plane-wave Fresnel diffraction by elliptic apertures: a Fourier-based approach

  • Riccardo Borghi
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 08/06/2014; posted 08/07/2014; Doc. ID 212568
  • [full text: PDF (1875) KB)]
  • Abstract: A simple theoretical approach to evaluate the scalar wavefield produced, within paraxial approximation, by the diffraction of a monochromatic plane wave by elliptic apertures or obstacles having arbitrary shape is presented. Two-dimensional maps of the optical intensity diffraction patterns are generated and visually compared with some experimental pictures produced in the past. An asymptotic analysis of the on-axis diffracted field is also provided and its results are compared to those obtained by the Maggi-Rubinowicz boundary wave theory.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Real-time dispersion-compensated image reconstruction for compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography

  • Daguang Xu, Yong Huang, and Jin Kang
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 08/05/2014; posted 08/12/2014; Doc. ID 213810
  • [full text: PDF (713) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this work, we propose a novel dispersion compensation method that enables real-time compressive sensing (CS) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) image reconstruction. We show that dispersion compensation can be incorporated into CS SD OCT by multiplying the dispersion-correcting terms to the undersampled spectral data before CS reconstruction. High-quality SD OCT imaging with dispersion compensation was demonstrated at a speed in excess of 70 frame/s using 40% of the spectral measurements required by the wellknown Shannon/Nyquist theory. The data processing and image display were performed on a conventional workstation having three graphics processing unit (GPU).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography

A new algorithm to reduce noise in high-order thermal ghost imaging

  • Xi-Hao Chen, Shuang-Shuang Wu, Wei Wu, Wang-Yuan Guo, Shao-Ying Meng, Zhi-Bin Sun, Guang-Jie Zhai, Ming-Fei Li, and Ling-An Wu
  • received 07/03/2014; accepted 08/04/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 216321
  • [full text: PDF (745) KB)]
  • Abstract: A modified Nth-order correlation function is derived which can effectively remove the noise background encountered in high-order thermal light ghost imaging. Based on this, the quality of the reconstructed images in an Nth-order lensless ghost imaging setup has been greatly enhanced compared to former high-order schemes for the same sampling number. In addition, the dependence of the visibility and signal-to-noise ratio for different high-order images on the sampling number has been measured and compared

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (110.6820) Imaging systems : Thermal imaging
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics

3-D confinement of the focal spot of plasmonic Fresnel zone plate lens using gold nano-bowtie antenna

  • Di Feng
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 08/04/2014; posted 08/06/2014; Doc. ID 212262
  • [full text: PDF (650) KB)]
  • Abstract: By using the gold nano-bowtie antenna at the focal plane of a plasmonic Fresnel zone plate lens, we numerically demonstrated that the focused beam spot can be strongly confined at a three-dimensional (3-D) region, which means the focal spot will has high axial resolution as well as high lateral resolution. According to the antenna’s resonance spectrum, the Fresnel zone plate lens is designed at the resonance wavelength of the antenna to get a right diffractive efficiency, and then the antenna will be positioned at the focal plane, so the 3-D confined focal spot can be achieved with much higher intensity and much smaller spot size along both axial and transverse direction than that of a lens without using antennas

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

Phase control of light transmission and reflection based biexciton coherence in a defect dielectric medium

  • Seyyed Hossein Asadpour and H. Soleimani
  • received 05/28/2014; accepted 08/03/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 212808
  • [full text: PDF (449) KB)]
  • Abstract: Phase control of two weak probe lights transmission and reflection based biexciton coherence in a defect dielectric medium doped by four-level GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells with 15 periods of 17.5 nm GaAs wells and 15-nm Al0.3 Ga0.7As barriers is theoretically investigated. The biexciton coherence in this scheme is set up by two continuous wave control fields that couple to a resonance of biexcitons. It is shown that the transmission and reflection properties versus relative phase between applied fields can be controlled by intensity of control fields and exciton spin relaxation between exciton states. Our studies provide that many-particle interactions due to Coulomb correlations in semiconductors can be harnessed quantum coherence in an interacting many-particle system.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects

BRDF-based Surface Modeling of Non- Lambertian Using Intensity Data of LiDAR

  • Xiaolu Li, Yu Liang, and Lijun Xu
  • received 06/05/2014; accepted 08/02/2014; posted 08/05/2014; Doc. ID 213399
  • [full text: PDF (589) KB)]
  • Abstract: To provide a credible model for LiDAR target classification, the focus of this study is on the relationship between intensity data of LiDAR and the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). An integration method based on the built-in-lab coaxial laser detection system was advanced. A kind of intermediary BRDF model advanced by Christophe Schlick was introduced into the integration method, considering diffuse and specular backscattering characteristics of the surface. A group of measurement campaigns were carried out to investigate the influences of the incidence angle and detection range on the measured intensity data. Two extracted parameters r and Sλ are influenced by different surface features, which illustrate the surface features of distribution and magnitude of reflected energy respectively. The combination of two parameters can be used to describe the surface characteristics for target classification in a more plausible way.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF

A roundtrip matrix method for calculating the leaky resonant modes of open nanophotonic structures

  • Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, Philip Kristensen, Jesper Mork, and Niels Gregersen
  • received 05/12/2014; accepted 08/01/2014; posted 08/06/2014; Doc. ID 211851
  • [full text: PDF (2063) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a numerical method for calculating quasi-normal modes of open nanophotonic structures. The method is based on scattering matrices and a unity eigenvalue of the roundtrip matrix of an internal cavity, and we develop it in detail with electromagnetic fields expanded on Bloch modes of periodic structures. This procedure is simpler to implement numerically and more intuitive than previous scattering matrix methods, and any routine based on scattering matrices can benefit from the method. We demonstrate the calculation of quasi-normal modes for two-dimensional photonic crystals where cavities are side-coupled and in-line-coupled to an infinite W1 waveguide and show that the scattering spectrum of these types of cavities can be reconstructed from the complex quasi-normal mode frequency.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (140.3945) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavities
  • (050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

July


FOCAL PLANE INTERNAL ENERGY FLOWS OF SINGULAR BEAMS IN ASTIGMATICALLY ABERRATED LOW NA SYSTEMS

  • Monika Bahl and Paramasivam Senthilkumaran
  • received 05/08/2014; accepted 07/30/2014; posted 08/05/2014; Doc. ID 211767
  • [full text: PDF (4020) KB)]
  • Abstract: Singular beams have circulating energy flow components. When such beams are focused by low NA systems suffering from astigmatic aberration, these circulating energy flow components get modified. The phase gradient introduced by this type of aberration splits the higher charge vortices. The dependence of charge, aberration coefficient and the size of the aperture on the nature of splitting process are reported in this paper. The transverse components of the Poynting vector fields that can be derived from the phase gradient vector field distributions are further decomposed into solenoidal and irrotational components using the Helmholtz Hodge decomposition method. The solenoidal components relate to Orbital Angular Momentum of the beams and the irrotational components are useful in the Transport of Intensity equations for phase retrieval.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (150.4620) Machine vision : Optical flow
  • (260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics

(30th Anniversary) Generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with non-conventional correlation functions: a review

  • Yangjian Cai, Yahong Chen, and Fei Wang
  • received 06/12/2014; accepted 07/29/2014; posted 07/31/2014; Doc. ID 214007
  • [full text: PDF (8008) KB)]
  • Abstract: Partially coherent beams with non-conventional correlation functions have displayed many extraordinary properties, such as self-focusing and self-splitting, which are totally different from those of partially coherent beams with conventional Gaussian correlated Schell-model functions and are useful in many applications, such as optical trapping, free-space optical communications and material thermal processing. In this paper, we present a review of recent developments on generation and propagation of partially coherent beams with non-conventional correlation functions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation

Articles 1 to 20 of 27 Next Page >>





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