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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Journal of the Optical Society of America A



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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 17 of 17


Radiation force exerted on a sphere by focused Laguerre-Gaussian beams

  • Huachao Yu and Weilong She
  • received 07/23/2014; accepted 11/23/2014; posted 11/25/2014; Doc. ID 217656
  • [full text: PDF (1071) KB)]
  • Abstract: The generalized Lorenz-Mie theory is employed to calculate the force exerted on a sphere by focused Laguerre- Gaussian beams. The key parameters of the theory, namely, the multipole coefficients of the beams, are exactly derived from the beams’ angular spectrums in terms of some auxiliary coefficients. Several recurrence formulas, which can improve the calculation of the auxiliary coefficients and accordingly the force, are also derived. According to the calculated force, the trapping performances of the beams are investigated in the Mie regime. It is found that low(high)-azimuthal-order beams usually have advantages in the radial trapping of the high(low)-refractive-index sphere, and the axial trapping of the low(high)-refractive-index sphere. The influences of the parameters of the beams, lens and sphere on the trapping performance are also investigated.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory

Preparing the Generalized Harvey-Shack rough surface scattering method for use with the Discrete Ordinates Method

  • Villads Egede Johansen
  • received 09/05/2014; accepted 11/19/2014; posted 11/20/2014; Doc. ID 221781
  • [full text: PDF (932) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper shows how to implement the Generalized Harvey-Shack (GHS) method for isotropic rough surfaces discretized in a polar coordinate system and approximated using Fourier series. This is in particular relevant for the use of the GHS method as boundary condition for radiative transfer problems in slab geometries, where the Discrete Ordinates method can be applied to solve the problem. Furthermore, such an implementation is a more natural discretization of the problem than the traditional direction cosine space that has its strengths in analytical problems and intuitive understanding (mainly due to its translation invariance). A computer implementation of scattering from a Gaussian rough surface with Gaussian autocovariance written in Python is included at the end of this paper.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.5770) Optics at surfaces : Roughness
  • (290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF
  • (290.5835) Scattering : Scattering, Harvey
  • (010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer

Performance of binoculars: Berek’s model of target detection

  • Holger Merlitz
  • received 05/31/2014; accepted 11/15/2014; posted 11/18/2014; Doc. ID 214527
  • [full text: PDF (326) KB)]
  • Abstract: A model of target detection thresholds, first presented by Max Berek of Leitz, is fitted into a simple set of closed equations. These are combined with a recently published universal formula for the human eye’s pupil size to yield a versatile formalism, capable of predicting binocular performance gains. The model encompasses target size, contrast, environmental luminance, binocular’s objective diameter, magnification, angle of view, transmission, stray-light, and the observer’s age. We analyze performance parameters of various common binocular models and compare the results with popular approximations to binocular performance, like the well known twilight index. The formalisms presented here are of interest in military target detection, as well as civil applications such as hunting, surveillance, object security, law enforcement or astronomy.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.1880) Detectors : Detection
  • (330.1800) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - contrast sensitivity
  • (330.4060) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision modeling
  • (330.7321) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision coupled optical systems

Application of complex geometrical optics to determination of thermal, transport and optical parameters of thin films by photothermal beam deflection technique

  • Dorota Korte and Mladen Franko
  • received 07/24/2014; accepted 11/13/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 217338
  • [full text: PDF (811) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this work the complex geometrical optics is for the first time applied instead of geometrical or wave optics to describe the probe beam interaction with the field of the thermal wave in photothermal beam deflection (PDS) experiments on thin films. On the basis of this approach the thermal (thermal diffusivity and conductivity), optical (energy band gap) and transport (carrier life time) parameters of the semiconductor thin films (pure TiO2, N- and C- doped TiO2, or TiO2/SiO2 composites deposited on glass or aluminum support) were determined with better accuracy and simultaneously during one measurement. The results are in good agreement with results obtained by the use of other methods and reported in literature.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.6810) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Thermal effects
  • (300.6430) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, photothermal
  • (080.5692) Geometric optics : Ray trajectories in inhomogeneous media

Polarization dependency of the metal-coated eccentric fiber

  • Jianxia Liu and Libo Yuan
  • received 08/01/2014; accepted 11/11/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 220231
  • [full text: PDF (2100) KB)]
  • Abstract: The transmission losses and lengths of two polarized fundamental mode for a metal-coated eccentric core optical fiber (ECOF) are considered based on the finite-element method (FEM), respectively. Three typical thin metal film (Au, Ag and Cu) are used and deposited on the walls of cladding of ECOF. The variations of the transmission losses and lengths are investigated with different eccentricity, core radii and metal film species. The numerical results indicate that the optical spectrum of a metal-coated ECOF can be tuned easily by changing structure parameters of fiber. The fundamental mode of metal-coated ECOF shows good polarization dependency. They are forecasted that utilizing the attenuation difference between the two polarization modes to the metal surface may be used to design an in-fiber polarizer.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
  • (060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
  • (060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
  • (060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties
  • (060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining

Differentiability of a projection functional in ray-tracing processes: applied study to estimate the coefficients of a single lens with conic surfaces.

  • Alejandro Téllez-Quiñones, Daniel Malacara-Doblado, and Jorge Garcia-Marquez
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 11/11/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 216595
  • [full text: PDF (1871) KB)]
  • Abstract: In optical design, many error functions can be used to generate an optical system with desired characteristics. These error functions are optimized by iterative algorithms. However, these error functions should be theoretically and mathematically differentiable to be optimized. In this paper, the differentiability of an error function is partially justified. The error function herein is called the projection functional. This proposed projection functional can be used to estimate the coefficients of an arbitrary lens with conic surfaces by means of the spot distributions on two planes produced by a fixed Hartmann plate. The differentiability of the projection functional is required to guarantee the existence of its Jacobian matrix, a suitable condition to minimize this functional by iterative methods. Numerical examples of the functional minimization are given.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.2720) Geometric optics : Mathematical methods (general)
  • (080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
  • (120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
  • (220.4840) Optical design and fabrication : Testing
  • (080.1753) Geometric optics : Computation methods
  • (080.4225) Geometric optics : Nonspherical lens design

Generalized propagation of light through optical systems I: Mathematical basics

  • Manuel Tessmer and Herbert Gross
  • received 08/27/2014; accepted 11/11/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 221782
  • [full text: PDF (1341) KB)]
  • Abstract: The propagation of an input field through tilted and curved surfaces is presented and applied for a field tracing routine. This routine employs a ray tracing method for optimal coordinate customization, which is done due to the strong linear phase terms that arise because of tilted coordinates on the one hand and the possibility of an application of fast numerical routines on the other. Several methods are proposed how to optimize the field sampling during the propagation process, as for the astigmatic phase front problem and the curvature of the surface itself. Two solution methods are given to propagate from the curved surface through the homogeneous space to another two-dimensional sub-manifold. The approach is fully-vectorial, Maxwell-exact excluding only surface curvature terms for the Fresnel coefficients. A simple numerical propagation example is given.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing
  • (220.2560) Optical design and fabrication : Propagating methods
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

DMD-based Implementation of Patterned Optical Filter Arrays for Compressive Spectral Imaging

  • Hoover Rueda, Henry Arguello, and Gonzalo Arce
  • received 08/05/2014; accepted 11/10/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 220429
  • [full text: PDF (9068) KB)]
  • Abstract: Compressive spectral imaging (CSI) captures multispectral imagery using fewer measurements than that required by traditional Shannon-Nyquist theory-based sensing procedures. CSI systems acquires coded and dispersed random projections of the scene rather than direct measurements of the voxels. To date, the coding procedure in CSI has been realized through the use of ``block-unblock" coded apertures, commonly implemented as chrome-on-quartz photomasks. These apertures block or permit to pass the entire spectrum from the scene at given spatial locations, thus modulating the spatial characteristics of the scene. This paper extends the framework of CSI by replacing the traditional block-unblock photomasks by patterned optical filter arrays, referred as ``colored" coded apertures. These in turn, allow the source to be modulated not only spatially but spectrally as well entailing more powerful coding strategies. The proposed colored coded apertures are synthesized through linear combinations of low-pass, high-pass and band-pass filters, paired with binary pattern ensembles realized by a digital-micromirror-device (DMD). The optical forward model of the proposed CSI architecture is presented along with a proof-of-concept implementation which achieves noticeable improvements in the quality of the reconstructions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (170.1630) Medical optics and biotechnology : Coded aperture imaging
  • (110.4155) Imaging systems : Multiframe image processing
  • (110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging
  • (130.7408) Integrated optics : Wavelength filtering devices

Fraunhofer diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by finite periodic structures with regular or irregular overall shapes

  • Yu-Lin Xu
  • received 09/04/2014; accepted 11/04/2014; posted 11/04/2014; Doc. ID 222491
  • [full text: PDF (1452) KB)]
  • Abstract: Based on an essentially different theoretical foundation than the classical diffraction theories that are in common and extensive use, this paper discusses from a fresh angle of view the theoretical interpretation and prediction of Fraunhoher (i.e., far-field) diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave with a given polarization state by a two- or three-dimensional, finite periodic array (PA) of identical obstacles. The theoretical treatment rests on the PA-version of the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM) [see Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 1053-68 (2013) & 31, 322-31 (2014)]. The truncated periodic structures may have an irregular overall shape with an arbitrary spatial orientation with respect to the incident beam. Overall shapes and intrinsic geometrical structures of the finite PAs play a decisive role in giving rise to an associated far-field diffraction pattern as well as the polarization properties of scattered radiation. In comparison with incident wavelength, physical dimensions of an individual component unit and a finite PA as a whole also have vital effects. In addition, it is shown that, when the physical dimensions of individual component units become much smaller than incident wavelength, the extracted diffraction pattern of a densely packed PA of such small volumes in forward directions exhibits the distinct features predicted from classical diffraction theories for an aperture with the same shape as the overall finite PA. To demonstrate, several typical examples are presented, including two complementary arrays used in the specific discussion concerning Babinet’s Principle. There are also brief, preliminary discussions on some fundamental concepts in connection with the involved theoretical basis and on the potential further development and application of the present theory.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
  • (260.1180) Physical optics : Crystal optics
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory


Global color estimation of special-effect coatings from measurements by commercially-available portable multi-angle spectrophotometers

  • A. Ferrero, J. Campos, E. Perales, F. Martínez-Verdú, I. van der Lans, and E. Kirchner
  • received 09/02/2014; accepted 10/29/2014; posted 11/07/2014; Doc. ID 220195
  • [full text: PDF (383) KB)]
  • Abstract: Colors of special-effect coatings have a strong dependence on the illumination/viewing geometry and a very appealing appearance. An open question is to know the minimum number of measurement geometries required to completely characterize their observed color shift. A recently published PCA-based procedure to estimate the color of special-effect coatings at any geometry from measurements at a reduced set of geometries was tested in this work, by using the measurement geometries of the commercial portable multi-angle spectrophotometers X-Rite MA98, Datacolor FX10 and BYK-mac as reduced sets. The performance of the proposed PCA-procedure for the color shift estimation for these commercial geometries has been examined for fifteen special-effect coatings. Our results suggest that, for rendering the color appearance of three dimensional objects covered with special-effect coatings, the color accuracy obtained with this procedure may be sufficient. This is the case especially if geometries of X-Rite MA98 or Datacolor FX10 are used.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.5820) Scattering : Scattering measurements
  • (330.1710) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, measurement
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF

Rotation dynamics of particles trapped in a rotating beam

  • Weilong She and Huachao Yu
  • received 09/08/2014; accepted 10/28/2014; posted 11/04/2014; Doc. ID 222624
  • [full text: PDF (567) KB)]
  • Abstract: The rotation dynamics of particles trapped in a rotating beam is theoretically investigated. We find that there is a critical angular speed for the rotating beam. If the angular speed of the rotating beam is smaller than the critical value, the angular velocity of the trapped particle is nearly the same as that of the rotating beam, in accord with the existing experimental observation. Otherwise the angular velocity of the trapped particles will become periodic or quasiperiodic with time, depending on the beam polarization, which has not been reported before. Moreover, we also propose some methods to determine the ratio between the beam power and the maximal angular speed of the trapped particle, which can be used to estimate the minimum power required to rotate the particle at a given angular speed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

Color filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial crosstalk

  • Leo Anzagira and Eric Fossum
  • received 06/12/2014; accepted 10/26/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 213977
  • [full text: PDF (2009) KB)]
  • Abstract: Digital image sensor outputs must usually be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction amplifies noise thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In sub-diffraction-limit (SDL) pixels, where optical and carrier crosstalk can be substantial, this problem can become significant when conventional color filter arrays (CFAs) such as the Bayer patterns (RGB and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNR deterioration caused by crosstalk in these SDL pixels. We demonstrate an improvement in the color gamut of pixels which use the new CFA patterns compared to the conventional Bayer CFAs. Gains in color reproduction accuracy and SNR are also demonstrated. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between color accuracy and SNR for the different CFA patterns

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
  • (330.1710) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, measurement

Design of dense transmission diffraction gratings for high-efficiency

  • Michael Golub
  • received 08/08/2014; accepted 10/24/2014; posted 11/14/2014; Doc. ID 220626
  • [full text: PDF (609) KB)]
  • Abstract: We proposed a design method for dense surface-relief diffraction gratings with high efficiency in transmission mode. Closed form analytical relations between diffraction efficiency, polarization and grating parameters were derived and verified in the resonance domain of diffraction, under general three-dimensional angles of incidence, traditionally named as conical mounting. Powerful tool for rigorous design of computer generated holograms and diffractive optical elements with spectroscopic scale periods is now enabled.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

Absorption and scattering by bispheres, quadspheres, and circular rings of spheres and their equivalent coated spheres

  • Ri-Liang Heng, Ki Cheong Sy, and Laurent Pilon
  • received 07/25/2014; accepted 10/22/2014; posted 11/07/2014; Doc. ID 217647
  • [full text: PDF (1030) KB)]
  • Abstract: This study demonstrates that the absorption and scattering cross-sections and asymmetry factor of randomly oriented and optically soft bispheres, quadspheres, and circular rings of spheres, with either monodisperse or polydisperse monomers, can be approximated by an equivalent coated sphere with identical volume and average projected area. This approximation could also apply to the angle-dependent scattering matrix elements for monomer size parameter less than 0.1. However, it quickly deteriorated with increasing monomer number and/or size parameter. It was shown to be superior to previously proposed approximations considering a volume equivalent homogeneous sphere and a coated sphere with identical volume and surface area. These results provide a rapid and accurate way of predicting the radiation characteristics of bispheres, quadspheres, and rings of spheres representative of various unicellular and multicellular cyanobacteria considered for producing food supplements, biofuels, and fertilizers. They could also be used in inverse methods for retrieving the monomers' optical properties, morphology, and/or concentration.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
  • (290.7050) Scattering : Turbid media
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization
  • (100.3200) Image processing : Inverse scattering
  • (010.5620) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiative transfer

Saturation of Multiplexed Volume Bragg Grating Recording

  • Boris Zeldovich, Sergiy Kaim, Sergiy Mokhov, Ivan Divliansky, Vadim Smirnov, and Leonid Glebov
  • received 09/11/2014; accepted 10/15/2014; posted 11/04/2014; Doc. ID 222938
  • [full text: PDF (706) KB)]
  • Abstract: Recording of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) in Photo-Thermo-Refractive glass is limited to maximum refractive index change about 0.002. We discuss various saturation curves and their influence on amplitudes of recorded gratings. Special attention is given to multiplexed VBGs aimed at recording of several gratings in the same volume. The best shape of saturation curve for production of strongest gratings is the threshold-type curve. Two photon absorption as mechanism of recording also allows increasing the strength of multiplexed VBGs.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.4220) Holography : Multiplex holography
  • (090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings


(CV) Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance

  • Bonnie Cooper and Barry Lee
  • received 09/30/2013; accepted 02/02/2014; posted 02/03/2014; Doc. ID 198653
  • [full text: PDF (1336) KB)]
  • Abstract: Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment with matching or mismatching (contrast polarity or modality) grating pairs that were adjusted to detection threshold. Thresholds with mismatched pairs were significantly elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of contrast pedestals. For in-phase pedestal conditions, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions. This suggests that luminance can overrule chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics
  • (330.6100) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial discrimination

(INTRO) (LITH2014) Advances in Lithography: Introduction to the feature

  • Andreas Erdmann, Apo Sezginer, Bruce Smith, and Rongguang Liang
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted ; posted 11/19/2014; Doc. ID 228231
  • [full text: PDF (316) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optical projection lithography has been the key technology for the ongoing miniaturization in semiconductor devices over the past 40 years. This issue features original research covering mask and image modeling methods and computational techniques for various inverse problems in advanced lithography including source and mask optimization, wavefront retrieval and design of Fresnel lenses.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.1200) General : Announcements, awards, news, and organizational activities
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems

Articles 1 to 17 of 17

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