Optics InfoBase > JOSA B > Volume 19 > Issue 10 > Page 2396

## Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, and L. P. Barry »View Author Affiliations

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan

*Department of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland*

*Department of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland*

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 10, pp. 2396-2402 (2002)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.19.002396

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (162 KB)

### Abstract

We describe a detailed theoretical investigation of two-photon absorption photoconductivity in semiconductor microcavities. We show that high enhancement (by a factor of >10, 000) of the nonlinear response can be obtained as a result of the microcavity effect. We discuss in detail the design and performance (dynamic range, speed) of such a device with the help of the example of an AlGaAs/GaAs microcavity operating at 900 nm. This device shows promise for low-intensity, fast autocorrelation and demultiplexing applications.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(040.5150) Detectors : Photoconductivity

(190.5970) Nonlinear optics : Semiconductor nonlinear optics including MQW

**Citation**

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, T. Krug, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, and L. P. Barry, "Two-photon-induced photoconductivity enhancement in semiconductor microcavities: a theoretical investigation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **19**, 2396-2402 (2002)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-10-2396

Sort: Author | Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshihara, and S. Imamura, “Multiple- and single-shot autocorrelator based on two-photon conductivity in semiconductors,” Opt. Lett. 17, 658–660 (1992).
- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).
- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
- H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
- Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
- J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pschenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1344–1346 (1997).
- T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).
- D. T. Reid, M. Padgett, C. McGowan, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, “Light-emitting diodes as measurement devices for femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 233–235 (1997).
- D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
- J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
- L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
- H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
- C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
- M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).
- J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).
- H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
- K. Ogawa and M. D. Pelusi, “High-sensitivity pulse spectrogram measurement using two-photon absorption in a semiconductor at 1.5μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 7, 135–140 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
- J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
- J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
- C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).
- J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).
- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
- H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).
- B. S. Wherrett, “Scaling rules for multiphoton interband absorption in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67–72 (1984).
- M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
- A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).
- M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
- M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).
- A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).
- A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).
- K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).
- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
- J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).
- C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
- A. Obeidat and J. Khurgin, “Excitonic enhancement of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1222–1227 (1995).
- M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
- P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
- M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
- A. T. Obeidat, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Khurgin, “Effects of two-photon absorption in saturable Bragg reflectors used in femtosecond solid state lasers,” Opt. Express 1(3), 68–72 (1997), http://www.optics express.org.
- S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
- T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Zhiping Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, C. M. Verber, and A. J. Springthorpe, “Two-photon absorption-induced self-phase modulation in GaAs–AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 756–758 (1999).
- W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
- Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
- H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
- D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
- D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).

**Aitchison, J. S.**

- H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).

**Azfar, T.**

- H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).

**Baltuska, A.**

**Barrow, D. A.**

- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).

**Barry, L. P.**

- H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
- J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
- L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
- D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).

**Bechtel, J. H.**

- J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).

**Bhat, R.**

- H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).

**Bollond, P. G.**

- J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).

**Bowers, J. E.**

- Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).

**Bradley, A. L.**

- H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).

**Brambilla, M.**

- M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).

**Brandi, H. S.**

- H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).

**Catalano, I. M.**

- M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).

**Chan, L. Y.**

- H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).

**Chiu, Y. J.**

- Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).

**Coldren, C. W.**

- M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).

**Dabbicco, M.**

- M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
- M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).

**De Araujo, C. B.**

- H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).

**De Matos, C.**

- S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).

**deGouw, J.**

- W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).

**Denbaars, S. P.**

- C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).

**Donegan, J. F.**

**Dudley, J. M.**

- L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
- D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).

**Dunbar, L. A.**

**Erlig, H.**

- H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).

**Fan, Y.**

- C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).

**Fetterman, H. R.**

**Feurer, T.**

- T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).

**Fleischu, S. B.**

**Folliot, H.**

**Gaeta, A. L.**

**Glass, A.**

- T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).

**Golubovic, D. S.**

- D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).

**Guenther, A. H.**

- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).

**Gvozdic, D. M.**

- D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).

**Hagan, D. J.**

- M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

**Harris, J. S.**

- M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).

**Harvey, J. D.**

**Hassan, A. R.**

- A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).

**Hegarty, J.**

**Hill, G.**

**Hobson, W. S.**

- M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).

**Hutchings, D. C.**

- M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).

**Imamura, S.**

**Ishikawa, M.**

- J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).

**Islam, M. N.**

- M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).

**Kang, J. U.**

- J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).

**Kao, F.-J.**

- C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).

**Karkhanehchi, M. M.**

- Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).

**Kean, A. H.**

- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).

**Keller, S.**

**Kenan, R. P.**

**Khurgin, J.**

**Khurgin, J. B.**

- J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
- A. T. Obeidat, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Khurgin, “Effects of two-photon absorption in saturable Bragg reflectors used in femtosecond solid state lasers,” Opt. Express 1(3), 68–72 (1997), http://www.optics express.org.
- J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).

**Knox, W. H.**

**Kobayashi, T.**

**Koza, M. A.**

**Laughton, F. R.**

- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
- F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).

**LeBlanc, H. P.**

**Lee, C. C.**

- C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).

**Lee, Y. Y.**

- W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).

**Leone, S. R.**

**Leonhardt, R.**

**Levi, A. F. J.**

**Li, S.**

- J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).

**Liang, J.-C.**

**Lin, C. H.**

- C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).

**Lin, H. H.**

- C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).

**Lynch, M.**

**Mack, M. P.**

**Manning, J.**

- J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).

**Marsh, J. H.**

- Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).

**Matavulj, P. S.**

- D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).

**McGowan, C.**

**McInerney, J. G.**

- P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).

**Miller, D. A. B.**

**Mishra, U.**

**Mishra, U. K.**

**Mitra, S. S.**

- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
- A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).

**Mullane, R. J.**

- P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).

**Nakatsuka, H.**

- J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).

**Nikogosyan, D. N.**

**Nikoloic, P. L.**

- D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).

**Obeidat, A.**

**Obeidat, A. T.**

**Ogawa, K.**

**Ogawa, T.**

- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).

**Olshansky, R.**

- J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).

**Osborn, D. L.**

**Padgett, M.**

**Pasquarello, A.**

- A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).

**Pelusi, M. D.**

**Penty, R. V.**

- H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).

**Portnoi, E. L.**

**Preusser, J.**

**Pschenichnikov, M. S.**

**Pugnet, M.**

- S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).

**Quattropani, A.**

- A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).

**Radunovic, J. B.**

**Ralph, S. E.**

**Ranka, J. K.**

**Reid, D. T.**

- D. T. Reid, M. Padgett, C. McGowan, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, “Light-emitting diodes as measurement devices for femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 233–235 (1997).

**Roberts, J. S.**

**Sakaki, H.**

- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
- A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).

**Sanchez, S.**

**Sauerbrey, R.**

**Schade, W.**

**Sheik-Bahae, M.**

**Shimizu, A.**

- A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).

**Sibbett, W.**

- D. T. Reid, M. Padgett, C. McGowan, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, “Light-emitting diodes as measurement devices for femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 233–235 (1997).

**Skovgaard, P. M. W.**

**Sleat, W. E.**

**Slusher, R. E.**

**Smith, W. L.**

- J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).

**Soccolich, C. E.**

**Soole, J. B. D.**

**Springthorpe, A. J.**

**Stegeman, G. I.**

**Streit, D. C.**

**Sun, C.-K.**

**Tai, K.**

- K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).

**Takagi, Y.**

**Tan, R. K.**

**Thomsen, B.**

**Thomsen, B. C.**

**Thomson, M. D.**

**Tsang, H. K.**

**Tsurumachi, N.**

**Udupa, A.**

**Ulmer, T. G.**

**Vaidyanathan, A.**

**Van Stryland, E.**

**Vasilev, P. P.**

**Verber, C. M.**

**Villeneuve, A.**

**Wang, J.-C.**

**Wang, S.**

**Weiler, M. H.**

- M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).

**Weiner, A. M.**

**Wherrett, B. S.**

**White, I. H.**

**Wiersma, D. A.**

**Yairi, M. B.**

**Yamane, Y.**

**Yang, C. C.**

**Ye, J. Y.**

**Yoshihara, K.**

**Young, M. G.**

**Zang, S. Z.**

**Zheng, Z.**

**Zhou, Zhiping**

### Appl. Opt.

### Appl. Phys. B

### Appl. Phys. Lett.

### Electron. Lett.

### IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

### IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

### J. Appl. Phys.

### J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

- A. Obeidat and J. Khurgin, “Excitonic enhancement of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1222–1227 (1995).
- B. S. Wherrett, “Scaling rules for multiphoton interband absorption in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67–72 (1984).

### J. Phys. C

### Opt. Commun.

### Opt. Express

- A. T. Obeidat, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Khurgin, “Effects of two-photon absorption in saturable Bragg reflectors used in femtosecond solid state lasers,” Opt. Express 1(3), 68–72 (1997), http://www.optics express.org.
- K. Ogawa and M. D. Pelusi, “High-sensitivity pulse spectrogram measurement using two-photon absorption in a semiconductor at 1.5μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 7, 135–140 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org.

### Opt. Lett.

- Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshihara, and S. Imamura, “Multiple- and single-shot autocorrelator based on two-photon conductivity in semiconductors,” Opt. Lett. 17, 658–660 (1992).
- J. K. Ranka, A. L. Gaeta, A. Baltuska, M. S. Pschenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Autocorrelation measurement of 6-fs pulses based on the two-photon-induced photocurrent in a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1344–1346 (1997).
- T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Zhiping Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, C. M. Verber, and A. J. Springthorpe, “Two-photon absorption-induced self-phase modulation in GaAs–AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 756–758 (1999).

### Phys. Rev. B

- A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).

### Phys. Rev. Lett.

- K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).

### Phys. Status Solidi B

- A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).

### Semicond. Sci. Technol.

### Solid State Commun.

- M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).

### Surf. Sci.

**2002, Folliot, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**2001, Sanchez, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**2000, Golubovic, Semicond. Sci. Technol.**

**2000, Gvozdic, Semicond. Sci. Technol.**

**2000, Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**2000, Dabbicco, Solid State Commun.**

**2000, Ogawa, Opt. Express**

**2000, Dabbicco, Opt. Commun.**

**1999, Erlig, Electron. Lett.**

**1999, Dudley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.**

**1999, Ye, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**1999, Yairi, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**1999, Ulmer, Opt. Lett.**

**1999, Schade, Opt. Commun.**

**1998, Chiu, Electron. Lett.**

**1998, Skovgaard, Opt. Commun.**

**1998, Reid, Appl. Opt.**

**1998, Kang, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**1998, Barry, Electron. Lett.**

**1997, Zheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.**

**1997, Ranka, Opt. Lett.**

**1997, Feurer, Appl. Phys. B**

**1997, Reid, Opt. Lett.**

**1997, Obeidat, Opt. Express**

**1995, Obeidat, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B**

**1995, Tsang, Electron. Lett.**

**1994, Laughton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.**

**1994, Hassan, Phys. Status Solidi B**

**1993, Tsang, Electron. Lett.**

**1993, Khurgin, Appl. Phys. Lett.**

**1993, Yang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.**

**1992, Islam, J. Appl. Phys.**

**1992, Shimizu, Surf. Sci.**

**1992, Shimizu, Phys. Rev. B**

**1992, Takagi, Opt. Lett.**

**1992, Laughton, Electron. Lett.**

**1991, Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.**

**1989, Shimizu, Phys. Rev. B**

- A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).

**1989, Tai, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**1988, Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. B**

**1984, Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B**

**1983, Brandi, J. Phys. C**

**1983, Manning, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.**

**1981, Weiler, Solid State Commun.**

**1980, Vaidyanathan, Phys. Rev. B**

**1980, Vaidyanathan, Phys. Rev. B**

**1976, Bechtel, Phys. Rev. B**

**1974, Lee, Phys. Rev. B**

## Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

### Related Journal Articles

- Exciton absorption in semiconductor quantum wells driven by a strong intersubband pump field (JOSAB)
- Nonlinear optical properties of GaSb and GaInAsSb and their application for phase conjugation in degenerate four-wave mixing (JOSAB)
- Gain and carrier temperature response of semiconductor laser media to short optical pulses (JOSAB)
- Modulational instability in a transmission system with semiconductor optical amplifiers and in-line filters (OL)
- Dynamic Franz—Keldysh effect: perturbative to nonperturbative regime (OL)

### Related Conference Papers

- Rotating and Fugitive Cavity Solitons in semiconductor microresonators
- Cavity solitons in driven VCSELs above threshold
- Quantum dot cavity-QED in the presence of strong electron-phonon interactions.
- Quantum dot cavity-QED in the presence of strong electron-phonon interactions.
- An optical switch with quantum interference in intersubband transitions
- An optical switch with quantum interference in intersubband transitions
- Terahertz-modulated photonics
- Terahertz-modulated photonics

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

- Firefox 11+
- Google Chrome 17+
- Internet Explorer 9+
- Safari 5+