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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2002
  • pp: 1295–1300

Imaging of photonic nanopatterns by scanning near-field optical microscopy

H. J. Maas, A. Naber, H. Fuchs, U. C. Fischer, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 1295-1300 (2002)

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We define photonic nanopatterns of a sample as images recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy with a locally excited electric dipole as a probe. This photonic nanopattern can be calculated by use of the Green’s dyadic technique. Here, we show that scanning near-field optical microscopy images of well-defined gold triangles taken with the tetrahedral tip as a probe show a close similarity to the photonic nanopattern of this nanostructure with an electric dipole at a distance of 15 nm to the sample and tilted 45° with respect to the scanning plane.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(240.4350) Optics at surfaces : Nonlinear optics at surfaces

H. J. Maas, A. Naber, H. Fuchs, U. C. Fischer, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Imaging of photonic nanopatterns by scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1295-1300 (2002)

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  35. We have also done numerical simulations for dipoles with a different angle with respect to the surface. The best correspondence between numerical and experimental images was achieved with a dipole tilted 45° to the scanning plane. A tolerance of ±10° can be stated, in which the photonic pattern does not change significantly.
  36. One referee insisted that we cite in this context the research of Michaelis et al.38 and of Sandogdhar.39 They use a single molecule as a probe for light microscopy of a sample similar to ours but by a factor of 10 larger. Their image shows a pattern that varies with the orientation of the triangles.38 They compared the image to simulated images extracted from unpublished data of O. Martin. The calculations performed with dipolar orientations within the scanning plane or perpendicular to the scanning plane reveal photonic nanopatterns that have a characteristic pattern. The experimental images38 and the calculated im ages have the property in common that the pattern differs for different orientations of the triangles. Sandogdhar concludes that a “quantitative comparison of calculations with the experimental results could reveal the dipole orientation.” 39 No conclusion was drawn about the orientation of the dipole, and therefore it is not clear whether a photonic pattern in our sense was observed at all.
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  39. V. Sandogdhar, “Trends and developments in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” in Nanometer Scale Science and Technology, M. Allegrini, N. Garcia, and O. Marti, eds. (IOS Press, Washington D.C., 2001), pp. 60–115.

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