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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Editor: G. I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2006
  • pp: 642–651

Multimode interferometric sensors on silicon optimized for fully integrated complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor chemical–biological sensor systems

Jeffrey J. Lillie, Mikkel A. Thomas, Nan-Marie Jokerst, Stephen E. Ralph, Karla A. Dennis, and Clifford L. Henderson  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 23, Issue 4, pp. 642-651 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.23.000642


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Abstract

We demonstrate an integrated evanescent-field multimode Mach–Zehnder interferometric chemical–biological sensor, fabricated on silicon, with sensitivity of parts per 10 9 achieved by modal pattern tracking and analysis. This sensor is fully compatible with the fabrication constraints of the silicon–complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si-CMOS) process. Furthermore, using the separately measured ellipsometric response together with the mass uptake of agent by the polymer sensing layer, we validate sensor performance via simulation and measure an absolute index sensitivity of 2.5 × 10 6 . We then extend this to a fully integrated chemical–biological sensor by considering the fundamental noise performance of CMOS detectors. We find that relatively short, < 5000 μ m long, interferometric sensing elements, with modal pattern analysis, allow fully integrated optical sensors on Si-CMOS (assuming a 2.8 μ m pixel pitch) with an index sensitivity of 9.2 × 10 7 and a corresponding concentration sensitivity of 170 parts per 10 9 for methanol in N 2 .

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 28, 2005
Revised Manuscript: July 29, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: September 28, 2005

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Jeffrey J. Lillie, Mikkel A. Thomas, Nan-Marie Jokerst, Stephen E. Ralph, Karla A. Dennis, and Clifford L. Henderson, "Multimode interferometric sensors on silicon optimized for fully integrated complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor chemical-biological sensor systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 642-651 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-23-4-642

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