OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2010
  • pp: B9–B17

Attosecond photon sources: the first decade and beyond [Invited]

Zenghu Chang and P. Corkum  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 27, Issue 11, pp. B9-B17 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1423 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Attosecond optics is a young branch of ultrafast laser science. In this short review, we introduce some of the important advancements and latest developments in generating and characterizing single isolated attosecond XUV/X-ray pulses.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.7240) Lasers and laser optics : UV, EUV, and X-ray lasers
(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics

Original Manuscript: June 24, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 22, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2010
Published: October 1, 2010

Virtual Issues
(2010) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Zenghu Chang and P. Corkum, "Attosecond photon sources: the first decade and beyond [Invited]," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B9-B17 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Constant, V. Taranukhin, A. Stolow, and P. B. Corkum, “Methods for the measurement of the duration of high-harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A56, 3870–3878 (1997).
  3. A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Worner, J. Bertrand, D. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Attosecond homodyne interferometry of a chemical reaction,” Nature 466, 604–607 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Staudte, D. Pavicic, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, H. Niikura, M. Schoffler, S. Schossler, B. Ulrich, P. P. Rajeev, Th. Weber, T. Jahnke, D. M. Villeneuve, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, C. L. Cocke, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Attosecond strobing of 2-surface population dynamics in dissociating H2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 073003 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Using correlated pairs for sub-femtosecond-resolution wave packet measurements,” Nature 421, 826–829 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Zuo, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron diffraction: a new tool for probing ultrafast molecular dynamics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 259, 313–320 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432, 867–871 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, H. C. Bandulet, D. Pavicic, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Akagi, T. Otobe, A. Staudte, A. Shiner, F. Turner, R. Dorner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct observation of tunneling from HOMO-1 in HCl,” Science 325, 1364–1367 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Lein, “Molecular imaging using re-collision electrons,” J. Phys. B 40, R135–R173 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonic conversion,” in Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics, NATO ASI, Ser. B, Vol. 316 (Plenum, 1993), pp. 95–110.
  14. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  15. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Generation of coherent soft X-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Shan and Z. Chang, “Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cut-off by using a long-wavelength pump,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804(R) (2001). [CrossRef]
  17. E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X ray by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1747–1749 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8350–8353 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holtzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740–743 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–640 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Yun, S. Chen, H. Wang, M. Chini, and Z. Chang, “Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5127–5130 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, C. Nakamura, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, and Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precision control of carrier-envelope phase in grating based chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 11468–11476 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Chen, M. Chini, H. Wang, C. Yun, H. Mashiko, Y. Wu, and Z. Chang, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization and control of 1 KHz, 6 mJ, 30 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5692–5695 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1436–1438 (2001). [CrossRef]
  33. A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003). [CrossRef]
  34. C. Li, E. Moon, H. Wang, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Determining the phase-energy coupling coefficient in carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32, 796–798 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. C. Li, E. Moon, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, C. M. Nakamura, J. Tackett, and Z. Chang, “Mechanism of phase-energy coupling in f-to-2f interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 48, 1303–1307 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. H. Wang, C. Li, J. Tackett, H. Mashiko, C. M. Nakamura, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Power locking of high-repetition-rate chirped pulse amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 275–279 (2007). [CrossRef]
  37. P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few cycle pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000). [CrossRef]
  38. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, F. Frassetto, M. Negro, L. Poletto, G. Sansone, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “High order harmonics driven by a self-phase-stabilized IR parametric source,” Laser Phys. 5, 1019–1027 (2010). [CrossRef]
  42. R. R. Jones, D. You, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1236–1239 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997). [CrossRef]
  45. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. V. T. Platonenko and V. V. Strelkov, “Single attosecond soft-x-ray pulse generated with a limited laser beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 435–440 (1999). [CrossRef]
  48. Dan Oron, Y. Silberberg, N. Dudovich, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063816 (2006). [CrossRef]
  49. Z. Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and XUV supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004). [CrossRef]
  50. V. Strelkov, A. Zair, O. Tcherbakoff, R. López-Martens, E. Cormier, E. Mével and E. Constant, “Single attosecond pulse production with an ellipticity-modulated driving IR pulse,” J. Phys. B 38, L161–L167 (2005). [CrossRef]
  51. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20to28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Z. Chang, “Chirp of the attosecond pulses generated by a polarization gating,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 023813 (2005). [CrossRef]
  53. B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Z. Chang, “Generation of attosecond XUV supercontinuum by polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005). [CrossRef]
  54. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007). [CrossRef]
  56. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Z. Chang, “Controlling attosecond pulse generation with a double optical gating,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 051403(R) (2007). [CrossRef]
  58. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008). [CrossRef]
  59. S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043810 (2010). [CrossRef]
  60. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, C. Yun, S. D. Khan, H. Wang, M. Chini, C. Shouyuan, and Z. Chang, “XUV supercontinua supporting pulse durations of less than one atomic unit of time,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3337–3339 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. G. L. Yudin, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Chirped attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. A. Staudte, S. Patchkovskii, D. Pavicic, H. Akagi, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, R. Dörner, M. Ivanov,and P. B. Corkum, “Angular tunneling ionization probability of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 033004 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. A. Emmanouilidou, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolving inter-atomic two-electron collision dynamics,” ArXiv:1003.1593v1 (2010).
  65. N. Milosevic, P. B. Corkum, and T. Brabec, “How to use lasers for imaging attosecond dynamics of nuclear processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 013002 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and P. B. Corkum, “Control of nuclear processes with super-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083602 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited