A model is constructed for the Raman effect as responsible for the self-frequency shift of solitons. The effect is related to and compared with the measured Raman gain in silica fibers. The model is quantized and includes the thermal and the quantum noise of the optical phonons generating the Raman effect. It is shown that the Raman effect causes excess noise for ultrashort pulses and limits the squeezing of subpicosecond solitons.
© 1994 Optical Society of America
F. X. Kärtner, D. J. Dougherty, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Raman noise and soliton squeezing," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1267-1276 (1994)