A new type of organic molecule, calixarene, is applied in a second-harmonic-generating waveguide device for the first time. Linear optical properties of the calixarene waveguiding film have been measured with the prism-coupling method. The molecules in the film are oriented by a corona-poling technique. With a Maker-fringe experiment, the induced d33 and d31 at λ = 1064 nm are determined at 8.6 and 2.0 pm/V, respectively. The calixarene thin film has been applied to a Čerenkov-type device that generates second-harmonic light radiating into the glass substrate. The highest efficiency obtained is 0.23% for a fundamental wavelength of 820 nm by the use of fundamental power densities of 100 MW/cm2 in the waveguide and a device length of 6 mm. A coupled-mode theory has been developed that can properly explain the experimentally observed second-harmonic-generating efficiency and the angle of radiation into the substrate. Two methods for the enhancement of device efficiency are proposed, both based on theoretical calculations with the coupled-mode theory. An enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude is feasible.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
O. F. J. Noordman, N. F. van Hulst, and B. Bölger, "Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in thin planar calixarene waveguiding films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2398-2405 (1995)