Soda-lime silicate glass has been locally doped with 0.2-at. % erbium by 3.0- and 5.0-MeV ion implantation. Single-mode fiber-compatible optical waveguides were then fabricated by use of Na<sup>+</sup> ↔ K<sup>+</sup> ion exchange. Characteristic photoluminescence (PL) of Er<sup>3+</sup> centered at 1.54 μm is observed on excitation at 1.48 μm. For low pump intensity the PL decay is nearly single exponential with a lifetime of 7.2 ms. At high intensity it becomes nonexponential as a result of cooperative upconversion, an interaction between excited Er ions. Self-consistent modeling of the PL intensity and decay data yields an upconversion coefficient of 3.2 ± 0.8 × 10<sup>−24</sup> m<sup>3</sup>/s. The effect of upconversion on optical gain is shown and discussed. An extrapolation of measured optical gain shows that 1 dB/cm of net gain is possible in the present Er-implanted soda-lime glass.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, "Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468-1474 (1995)