Field confinement in a microchip laser with transversely varying gain and plane–plane cavity mirrors is theoretically discussed with a semiclassical treatment. We show that the common notion of a transverse cavity mode becomes closely linked to that of a longitudinal cavity mode owing to the key role that detuning of the longitudinal cavity frequency from the atomic resonance plays in the formation of the transverse field profile. In particular, we show that as the pump size decreases the laser emission is pulled toward the atomic resonance frequency on the negative detuning side. Strong mode pulling is interpreted as being due to the index-antiguiding effect induced by the pump and manifests itself as a ring pattern in the far-field spatial intensity.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
S. Longhi and P. Laporta, "Longitudinal–transverse mode interplay and conical emission in microchip lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1511-1515 (1995)