OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 12, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 1995
  • pp: 1581–1585

Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled polymers by the use of birefringence

X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, H. Ukuda, and S. Miyata  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 12, Issue 9, pp. 1581-1585 (1995)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.12.001581


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (360 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Green light has been observed for the first time to the authors' knowledge by bulk phase-matched second-harmonic generation from a stretched main chain polyurea. The polyurea was synthesized from 4,4'- diphenylmethane diisocyanate and 4,4'-methylene bis(cyclohexylamine). The spin-coated film has an initial positive birefringence. Drawing further increased the birefringence, and the film can be used for phase matching just as in biaxial single crystals. The drawn and poled polymer films belong to the 2mm point group. Three independent nonlinear-optic coefficients were determined. The type I phase-matching characteristics were calculated and confirmed by experiments. We demonstrate that a highly effective second-harmonic-generation device with a long optical path length can be obtained by use of bulk phase-matchable poled polymer.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Citation
X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, H. Ukuda, and S. Miyata, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled polymers by the use of birefringence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1581-1585 (1995)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-12-9-1581


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, "Second-harmonic generation of light with double refraction," Phys. Rev. A 137, 1305 (1965).
  2. M. V. Hobden, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365 (1967).
  3. D. J. Williams, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Materials, ACS Symp. Ser. 233, (1983), and references therein.
  4. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, "Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
  5. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. K. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
  6. T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyllimba, and D. J. Williams, "Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic wave-guide," Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
  7. J. I. Chen, S. Marturunkakul, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Dipolar relaxation in a second-order nonlinear optical interpenetrating polymer network," Macromolecules 26, 7379 (1993).
  8. W. K. Chan, Y. M. Chen, Z. H. Peng, and L. P. Yu, "Rational designs of multifunctional polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11735 (1993).
  9. M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, "Novel second-order nonlinear optical polymers via chemical cross-linking-induced vitrification under electric field," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
  10. G. D. Green, J. I. Weinschenk, III, J. E. Mulvancy, and H. K. Hall, Jr., "Synthesis of polyesters containing a nonrandomly placed highly polar repeat unit," Macromolecules 20, 722 (1987).
  11. W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, Y. Zhang, S. P. Karna, P. N. Prasad, A. C. Griffin, and A. M. Bhatti, "Second-order nonlinear optical effects in novel side-chain liquid crystalline polymers and monomers under bias of an applied dc electric field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1832 (1992).
  12. G. A. Lindsay, J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. A. Henry, J. M. Hoover, R. A. Nissan, and K. J. Wynne, "Main-chain accordion polymers for nonlinear optics," Macromolecules 25, 6075 (1992).
  13. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, O. Reiser, R. J. Twieg, and C. A. Walsh, "The design, synthesis, and evaluation of chromophores for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 410 (1992).
  14. C. Z. Xu, B. Wu, M. W. Becker, L. R. Dalton, P. M. Ranon, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "Main-chain second-second order nonlinear optical polymer: random incorporation of amino-sulfone chromophores," Chem. Mater. 5, 1439 (1993).
  15. M. Stähelin, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, and W. Volksen, "Orientational decay in poled second-order nonlinear optical guest-host polymers: temperature dependence and effects of poling geometry," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8471 (1993).
  16. R. Norwood and G. Khanarian, "Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
  17. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, M. Okabe, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, and K. Sasaki, "Phase-matched second harmonic generation in a poled dye/polymer waveguide," Appl. Opt. 32, 2957, (1991); G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483 (1993).
  18. J. R. Sounik, G. Khanarian, J. Popolo, and S. Meyer, "Zero dispersion nonlinear optical polymeric materials containing stilbene and napthalocyanine dyes," Chem. Mater. 5, 1253 (1993).
  19. Y. Shuto, H. Takara, M. Amano, and T. Kaino, "Non-collinearly phase-matched second harmonic generation in stilbene-dye-attached polymer thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 2508 (1989).
  20. K. Clays, N. J. Armstrong, and T. L. Penner, "Blue and green Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in a polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 886 (1993).
  21. M. G. Kuzyk, K. D. Singer, H. E. Zahn, and L. A. King, "Second-order nonlinear-optical tensor properties of poled films under stress," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 742 (1989).
  22. X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, S. Shimoda, D. C. Zou, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, "Lambda-type main chain polymer for second harmonic generation," Chem. Mater. 6, 1961 (1994).
  23. See, for example, D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
  24. G. Khanarian, M. A. Mortazavi, and A. J. East, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation from free-standing periodically stacked polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1462 (1993).
  25. X. T. Tao, T. Watanabe, D. C. Zou, S. Shimoda, H. Sato, and S. Miyata, "Polyurea with large positive birefringence for second-harmonic generation," Macromolecules 28, 2637 (1995).
  26. J. B. Land, H. G. Olf, and A. Perterlin, "Nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray determination of structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride)," J. Polym. Sci. A-1 4, 941 (1966); H. Kawai, "The piezoelectricity of poly(vinylidene fluoride)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 8, 975 (1969); J. G. Bergman, Jr., H. McFee, and G. R. Crane, "Pyroelectricity and optical second harmonic generation in polyvinylidene fluoride films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
  27. B. Wyncke and F. Brehat, "Calculation of effective second-order nonlinear coefficients along the phase matching direction in acentric orthorhombic biaxial crystals," J. Phys. B 22, 363 (1989).
  28. J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, "Maker fringes: detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
  29. See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited