A theory based on the Kukhtarev–Vinetskii model is developed that provides the evolution equation of one-dimensional optical spatial solitons in photorefractive media. In the steady-state regime and under appropriate external bias conditions, our analysis indicates that the underlying wave equation can exhibit bright and dark as well as gray spatial soliton states. The characteristics of these self-trapped optical beams are discussed in detail.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995)