OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 14, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 1997
  • pp: 2664–2669

Bistable phase-conjugate reflectivity controlled by a forward pump beam

Yoshihisa Takayama, Atsushi Okamoto, Mototsugu Takamura, and Kunihiro Sato  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 14, Issue 10, pp. 2664-2669 (1997)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (212 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



One of the typical methods to generate the phase-conjugate beam is four-wave mixing with a photorefractive crystal. It is known that the phase-conjugate reflectivity shows the bistability in some cases. Analyzing the temporal property of four-wave mixing, we offer a new method to control the bistable phase-conjugate reflectivity, and we perform an experiment of the bistability control by the method. An equation to obtain the threshold value of the coupling strength for showing the bistability is derived by a steady-state analysis of four-wave mixing, and the temporal property of four-wave mixing is studied with two different initial conditions that are used for letting the phase-conjugate reflectivity R converge to an off state (R=0) or to an on state (R>0). The initial condition for the converging off state is that the forward pump beam is turned off throughout. The condition for the converging on state is that the forward pump beam is turned on in advance, and after enough time passes, it is turned off. In both conditions, the backward pump beam and the probe beam continue to illuminate throughout. Whereas both optical arrangements are equivalent after setting up these initial conditions, each phase-conjugate reflectivity converges to different stationary values, R=0 and R>0. Besides, an experiment is performed and we actually control the bistability by this method. Furthermore, the temporal and the spatial variation of the refractive-index grating in the photorefractive crystal is investigated, and the process of the bistability is explained.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Yoshihisa Takayama, Atsushi Okamoto, Mototsugu Takamura, and Kunihiro Sato, "Bistable phase-conjugate reflectivity controlled by a forward pump beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2664-2669 (1997)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive NonlinearOptics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  2. M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12–30 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. K. S. Syed, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Transient analysis of four-grating copolarized four-wave mixing insaturable gain media with finite probe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1892–1904 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Norman, “Phase-conjugate Michelson interferometers for all-optical image processingand computing,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 212–220 (1992). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kang, C. X. Yang, G. G. Mu, and Z. K. Wu, “Real-time holographic associative memory using doped LiNbO3 in a phase-conjugate resonator,” Opt. Lett. 15, 637–639 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. F. C. Jahoda, P. R. Forman, and B. L. Mason, “Quantitative evaluation of phase-conjugate novelty filters,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1532–1534 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. T. S. Yu and S. Yin, “Applications of photorefractive crystals to signal processing,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 2, 143–163 (1991).
  8. S. Campbell, Y. Zhang, and P. Yeh, “Writing and copying in volume holographic memories: approaches andanalysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 27–33 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. T. K. Das and G. C. Bhar, “Phase-conjugate bistability and multistability in moving–gratingoperated orthogonally polarized pump four-wave mixing in photorefractives,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 1019–1032 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. S.-K. Kwong, M. Cronin-Golomb, and A. Yariv, “Optical bistability and hysteresis with a photorefractive self-pumpedphase conjugate mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1016–1018 (1984). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ding and H. J. Eichler, “Increase and bistability of the four-wave mixing reflectivity in photorefractiveInP:Fe by grating-shift control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 119–123 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. B. M. Jost, “Photorefractive two-wave mixing bistability in Fe:KNbO3 without external feedback: increasinggain bistability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1346–1348 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Takayama, A. Okamoto, and K. Sato, “High-efficiency transient phase conjugation by turning on reading beamincident upon steady-state transmission grating in BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Commun. 123, 603–606 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited