We analyze self-trapping of one-dimensional optical beams in photorefractive, photovoltaic media for open- and closed-circuit realizations. We show that a passive load (resistor) in the external circuit can be used for switching of dark photovoltaic solitons. Dark solitons in a short-circuited crystal can be obtained for a much smaller nonlinearity than in open-circuit conditions. Shorting the crystal affects bright solitons very little.
© 1997 Optical Society of America
Mordechai Segev, George C. Valley, Matthew C. Bashaw, Minoru Taya, and Martin M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997)