OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1998
  • pp: 996–1008

Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium

Ralph H. Page, Kathleen I. Schaffers, Phillip A. Waide, John B. Tassano, Stephen A. Payne, William F. Krupke, and William K. Bischel  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 996-1008 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.15.000996


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (347 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We discuss the upconversion luminescence efficiencies of phosphors that generate red, green, and blue light. The phosphors studied are single crystals and powders codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ and with Tm3+ and Yb3+. The Yb ions are pumped near 980 nm; transfers of two or three quanta to the codoped rare-earth ion generate visible luminescence. The main contribution is the quantitative measurement of this upconversion efficiency, based on the use of a calibrated integrating sphere, determination of the fraction of pump light absorbed, and careful control of the pump-laser-beam profile. The green phosphors are the most efficient, yielding efficiency values as high as 4%, with the red and blue materials giving 1%–2%. Saturation was observed in all cases, suggesting that populations of upconversion steps of the ions are maximized at higher power. Quasi-cw modeling of the intensity-dependent upconversion efficiency was attempted; input data included level lifetimes, transition cross sections, and cross-relaxation-rate coefficients. The saturation of the Yb, Er:fluoride media is explained by the pumping of Er3+ ions into a bottleneck (long-lived state), that is, the 4I13/2 metastable level, making them unavailable for further excitation transfer.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(190.7220) Nonlinear optics : Upconversion

Citation
Ralph H. Page, Kathleen I. Schaffers, Phillip A. Waide, John B. Tassano, Stephen A. Payne, William F. Krupke, and William K. Bischel, "Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 996-1008 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-15-3-996


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. N. Bloembergen, “Solid state infrared quantum counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84–85 (1959).
  2. TOKIN IR catcher (Tokin America, 155 Nicholson Lane, San Jose, California 95134); LLNL internal characterization with X-ray diffraction.
  3. F. Heine, V. Ostroumov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “CW Yb, Tm:YLF upconversion laser at 650 nm, 800 nm, and 1500 nm,” Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. Chai and S. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 77–79; P. Xie and T. R. Gosnell, “Diode-pumped, CW, blue, green, orange, and red upconversion fiber lasers operating at room temperature,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. Chai and S. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 101–105.
  4. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
  5. F. E. Auzel, “Materials and devices using double-pumped phosphors with energy transfer,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–788 (1973).
  6. T. Kano, H. Yamamoto, and Y. Otomo, “NaLnF4:Yb3+, Er3+ (Ln:Y, Gd, La): efficient green-emitting infrared-excited phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 1561–1564 (1972).
  7. H. Chou, P. Albers, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “CW Tunable Laser Emission of Nd3+:Na0.4Y0.6F2.2,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 322.
  8. N. Menyuk, K. Dwight, and J. W. Pierce, “NaYF4:Yb, Er—an efficient upconversion phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 159–161 (1972).
  9. P. N. Yocom, J. P. Wittke, and I. Ladany, “Rare-earth-doped oxysulfides for GaAs-pumped luminescent devices,” Metall. Trans. A 2, 763–767 (1971).
  10. J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, and P. N. Yocom, “Y2O3:Yb:Er:—new red-emitting infrared-excited phosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595–600 (1972).
  11. Y. Mita, H. Yamamoto, K. Katayanagi, and S. Shionoya, “Energy transfer processes in Er3+- and Yb3+-doped infrared upconversion materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 1219–1223 (1995).
  12. J. E. Geusic, F. W. Ostermayer, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Van Uitert, and J. P. van der Ziel, “Efficiency of red, green, and blue infrared-to-visible conversion sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1958–1960 (1971).
  13. F. W. Ostermayer, “Preparation and properties of infrared-to-visible conversion phosphors,” Metall. Trans. A 2, 747–755 (1971).
  14. R. A. Hewes and J. F. Sarver, “Infrared excitation processes for the visible luminescence of Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+ in Yb3+-sensitized rare-earth trifluorides,” Phys. Rev. 182, 427–436 (1969).
  15. L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, T. C. Rich, and F. W. Ostermayer, “Infrared-to-visible conversion by rare-earth ions in crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1125–1137 (1972).
  16. J. D. Kingsley, G. E. Fenner, and S. V. Galginaitis, “Kinetics and efficiency of infrared-to-visible conversion in LaF3:Yb, Er,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 115–117 (1969).
  17. E. Okamoto, H. Masui, K. Muto, and K. Awazu, “Nonresonant energy transfer from Er3+ to Yb3+ in LaF3,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2122–2123 (1972).
  18. M. A. Chamarro and R. Cases, “Infrared to visible upconversion of Er3+ in Yb3+ doped fluorohafnate glasses,” J. Lumin. 46, 59–65 (1990).
  19. F. Auzel, D. Pecile, and D. Morin, “Rare earth doped vitroceramics: new, efficient, blue and green emitting materials for infrared upconversion,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 101–107 (1975).
  20. J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, and P. N. Yocom, “Properties of a blue-emitting IR pumped YF3:Yb, Tm diode,” Proc. IEEE 58, 1283–1285 (1970).
  21. Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “High-efficiency infrared-to-visible conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1272–1278 (1993).
  22. S. L. Jacques, “Role of tissue optics and pulse duration on tissue effects during high-power laser irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2447–2454 (1993).
  23. A. Bril, J. L. Sommerdijk, and A. W. de Jager, “On the efficiency of Yb3+–Er3+ activated up-conversion phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 660–663 (1974).
  24. F. Auzel and D. Pecile, “Comparison and efficiency of materials for summation of photons assisted by energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 8, 32–43 (1973).
  25. A. Kermaoui, G. Özen, Ph. Goldner, J. P. Denis, and F. Pellé, “Infrared to blue upconversion fluorescence in heavy metal fluoride glass codoped with Tm3+ and Yb3+ ions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 55, 677–682 (1994).
  26. G. Özen, J. P. Denis, Xu Wu, F. Pellé, and B. Blanzat, “Upconversion luminescence of Tm3+ in Yb3+-doped fluorophosphate glasses under 683 nm excitation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 176, 147–156 (1994).
  27. D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, and M. J. Suscavage, “Efficient frequency upconversion of Tm3+ ions in Yb3+ doped barium-thorium-fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4644–4650 (1988).
  28. T. C. Rich and D. A. Pinnow, “Exploring the ultimate efficiency in infrared-to-visible converting phosphors activated with Er and sensitized with Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2357–2365 (1972).
  29. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996), p. 275.
  30. J. Wright, “Up-conversion and excited state energy transfer in rare-earth doped materials,” in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, Vol. 15 of Topics in Applied Physics, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), Chap. 4, pp. 239–295.
  31. Y. Mita, “Luminescence processes in Yb3+-sensitized rare-earth phosphors,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1772–1778 (1972).
  32. J. D. Kingsley, “Analysis of energy transfer and infrared-to-visible conversion in LaF3:Yb, Er,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 175–182 (1970).
  33. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1994), p. 281.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited