OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 15, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1998
  • pp: 2154–2160

Measurement of the photorefractive grating phase shift in a polymer by an ac phase-modulation technique

Martin Liphardt and Stephen Ducharme  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 15, Issue 7, pp. 2154-2160 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.15.002154


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (242 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The complex coupling constant of a photorefractive polymer was measured as a function of an applied electric field by use of a modified ac phase modulation technique. We determined that both a photorefractive index grating and a nonphotorefractive absorption grating were present. The electric field dependencies of the amplitude and the phase of the photorefractive gain coefficient were accurately described by standard photorefractive theory. The accuracy of the photorefractive phase shift as measured by this phase-modulation technique was 1 near phase shifts of 90 and 3 near phase shifts of 45 . 1998 Optical Society of America S0740-3224(98)01807-4

[Optical Society of America ]

OCIS Codes
(160.5140) Materials : Photoconductive materials
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers

Citation
Martin Liphardt and Stephen Ducharme, "Measurement of the photorefractive grating phase shift in a polymer by an ac phase-modulation technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2154-2160 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-15-7-2154


Sort:  Author  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. R. B. Bylsma , D. H. Olson , and A. M. Glass , Photochromic gratings in photorefractive materials , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 13 , 853 ( 1988
  2. R. S. Cudney , R. M. Pierce , G. D. Bacher , and J. Feinberg , Absorption gratings in photorefractive crystals with multiple levels , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 8 , 1326 ( 1991
  3. M. Z. Zha , P. Amrhein , and P. Gu nter , Measurement of phase shift of photorefractive gratings by a novel method , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 26 , 788 ( 1990
  4. P. A. M. D. Santos , L. Cescato , and J. Frejlich , Interference-term real-time measurement for self-stabilized two-wave mixing in photorefractive crystals , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 13 , 1014 ( 1988
  5. P. M. Garcia , L. Cescato , and J. Frejlich , Phase-shift measurement in photorefractive holographic recording , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 66 , 47 ( 1989
  6. P. N. Ilinykh , O. P. Nestiorkin , and B. Ya. Zel dovich , Phase shift in nondegenerate coupling of waves in the photorefractive crystal , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 80 , 249 ( 1991
  7. R. Hofmeister , A. Yariv , A. Kewitsch , and S. Yagi , Simple methods of measuring the net photorefractive phase shift and coupling constant , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 488 ( 1993
  8. R. K. Ing and J.-P. Monchalin , Measurement of the photorefractive phase shift by polarization interferometry , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 852 ( 1993
  9. J. Frejlich , Real-time photorefractive hologram phase-shift measurement and self-diffraction effects , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 260 ( 1994
  10. M. Gehrtz , J. Pinsl , and C. Bra uchle , Sensitive detection of phase and absorption gratings: phase-modulated, homodyne detected holography , Appl. Phys. B APPCDL 43 , 61 ( 1987
  11. R. S. Cudney , G. D. Bacher , R. M. Pierce , and J. Feinberg , Measurement of the photorefractive phase shift , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 67 ( 1992
  12. R. M. Montgomery and M. R. Lange , Amplitude and phase measurement technique for photorefractive gratings , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 68 , 4782 ( 1990
  13. W. B. Lawler , C. J. Sherman , and M. G. Moharam , Direct measurement of the amplitude and the phase of photorefractive fields in KNbO 3 :Ta and BaTiO 3 , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 8 , 2190 ( 1991
  14. P. N. Ilinykh , O. P. Nestiorkin , and B. Ya. Zel dovich , Recording a static hologram with laser beams of different frequencies in photorefractive crystals , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 8 , 1042 ( 1991
  15. D. G. Gray , M. G. Moharam , and T. M. Ayres , Heterodyne technique for the direct measurement of the amplitude and phase of photorefractive space-charge fields , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 11 , 470 ( 1994
  16. V. Kondilenko , V. Markov , S. G. Odulov , and M. Soskin , Diffraction of coupled waves and determination of phase mismatch between holographic grating and fringe pattern , Opt. Acta OPACAT 26 , 239 ( 1979
  17. R. Kapoor , M. Moghbel , and P. Venkateswarlu , Energy-transfer measurement and determination of the phase shift between the holographic grating and the fringe pattern in photorefractive materials , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 696 ( 1993
  18. V. Markov , S. Odulov , and M. Soskin , Properties of the three-dimensional phase holograms in activated and reduced LiNbO 3 crystals , Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. BUPSAA 41 , 144 ( 1977
  19. K. Sutter and P. Gu nter , Photorefractive gratings in the organic crystal 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine doped with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 7 , 2274 ( 1990
  20. C. A. Walsh and W. E. Moerner , Two-beam coupling measurements of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 9 , 1642 ( 1992
  21. A. Grunnet-Jepsen , C. I. Thompson , and W. E. Moerner , Measurement of the spatial phase shift in high-gain photorefractive materials , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 874 ( 1997
  22. B. E. Jones , S. Ducharme , A. Goonesekera , M. Liphardt , R. V. Athalye , L. Zhang , and J. M. Takacs , Photoconductivity and grating response time of a photorefractive polymer , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 11 , 1064 ( 1994
  23. H. Kogelnik , Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings , Bell Syst. Tech. J. BSTJAN 48 , 2909 ( 1969
  24. M. Liphardt , A. Goonesekera , S. Ducharme , J. M. Takacs , and L. Zhang , Effect of beam attenuation on photorefractive grating erasure , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 13 , 2252 ( 1996
  25. N. V. Kukhtarev , Kinetics of hologram recording and erasure in electro-optic crystals , Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 2 , 438 ( 1976
  26. P. Gu nter and F. Micheron , Photorefractive effects and photocurrents in KNbO 3 :Fe , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 18 , 27 ( 1978
  27. W. E. Moerner , S. M. Silence , F. Hache , and G. C. Bjorklund , Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 11 , 320 ( 1994
  28. A. Goonesekera , M. Liphardt , S. Ducharme , J. M. Takacs , and L. Zhang , The role of photoconductivity in molecularly doped photorefractive polymers , in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers , S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 2526 , 109 ( 1995
  29. N. V. Kukhtarev , V. B. Markov , S. G. Odulov , M. S. Soskin , and V. L. Vinetskii , Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 22 , 949 ( 1979
  30. A. Twarowski , Geminate recombination in photorefractive crystals , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 65 , 2833 ( 1989
  31. J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner , Theory and simulation of the formation and erasure of space-charge gratings in photoconductive polymers , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 72 , 1888 ( 1992
  32. J. S. Schildkraut and Y. Cui , Zero-order and first-order theory of the formation of space-charge gratings in photoconductive polymers , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 72 , 5055 ( 1992
  33. L. B. Schein , Comparison of charge transport models in molecularly doped polymers , Philos. Mag. B PMABDJ 65 , 795 ( 1992
  34. J. C. Scott , L. T. Pautmeier , and W. E. Moerner , Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 9 , 2059 ( 1992
  35. S. Ducharme , R. W. Twieg , J. C. Scott , and W. E. Moerner , Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 66 , 1846 ( 1991
  36. M. Liphardt , A. Goonesekera , B. E. Jones , S. Ducharme , J. M. Takacs , and L. Zhang , High performance photorefractive polymers , Science SCIEAS 263 , 367 ( 1994
  37. W. E. Moerner and S. Silence , Polymeric photorefractive materials , Chem. Rev. CHREAY 94 , 127 ( 1994
  38. N. V. Kukhtarev , V. B. Markov , S. G. Odulov , M. S. Soskin , and V. L. Vinetskii , Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. II. Beam coupling-light amplification , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 22 , 961 ( 1979
  39. K. Meerholz , B. L. Volodin , Sandalphon , B. Kippelen , and N. Peyghambarian , A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100 , Nature NATUAS 371 , 497 ( 1994

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited