OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 16, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 1999
  • pp: 147–154

Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 147-154 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (562 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A general model is presented for coupling of high-Q whispering-gallery modes in optical microsphere resonators with coupler devices that possess a discrete and continuous spectrum of propagating modes. By contrast to conventional high-Q optical cavities, in microspheres the independence of high intrinsic quality-factor and controllable parameters of coupling via an evanescent field offer a variety of regimes similar to those that are already available in rf devices. The theory is applied to data reported earlier on different types of couplers to microsphere resonators and is complemented by the experimental demonstration of enhanced coupling efficiency (∼80%) and variable loading regimes with Q>108 fused-silica microspheres.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
(290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147-154 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes,” Phys. Lett. A 137, 393–396 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, “Atom galleries for whispering atoms: binding atoms in stable orbits around a dielectric cavity,” Opt. Lett. 19, 749–751 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “A very low threshold whispering gallery mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R1777–R1780 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1138–1140 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Serpengüzel, S. Arnold, and G. Griffel, “Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 654–656 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. V. V. Vasiliev, V. L. Velichansky, M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, L. Hollberg, and A. V. Yarovitsky, “High-coherence diode laser with optical feedback via a microcavity with ‘whispering gallery’ modes,” Quantum Electron. 26, 657–658 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very high-Q whispering gallery modes resonances observed on fused silica microspheres,” Europhys. Lett. 23, 327–333 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. P. W. Barber and R. K. Chang, Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988).
  9. S. P. Vyatchanin, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable narrowband optical filters with whispering gallery modes,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 56, 274–280, 1992
  10. M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, “High-Q optical whispering gallery microresonators: precession approach for spherical mode analysis and emission patterns,” Opt. Commun. 113, 133–143 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Griffel, S. Arnold, D. Taskent, A. Serpengüzel, J. Connoly, and N. Morris, “Morphology-dependent resonances of a microsphere-optical fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 21, 695–697 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefévre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Eroded monomode optical fiber for whispering-gallery mode excitation in fused-silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1515–1517 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering gallery mode resonances using a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1129–1131 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. R. Rowland and J. D. Love, “Evanescent wave coupling of whispering gallery modes of a dielectric cylinder,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Part J. 140, 177–188 (1993).
  15. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).
  16. H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187–5198 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Shiller, “Asymptotic expansion of morphological resonance frequencies in Mie scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2181–2185 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Dubreuil, Institut d’Optique, Centre Universitaire d’Orsay, B.P. 147, 91403 Orsay cedex, France (personal communication, 1997).
  19. M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, “Thermal nonlinear effects in optical whispering-gallery microresonators,” Laser Phys. 2, 1004–1009 (1992).
  20. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, B. Kobrin, and S. Juma, “Bragg grating fabrication in germanosilicate fibers by use of near-UV light: a new pathway for refractive index changes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1086–1088 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited