Static and dynamic characteristics of weakly index-guided vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers in a multi-transverse-mode regime are analyzed by use of a model that takes into account the transverse modes supported by the waveguide and a consistent spectral gain including many-body effects. Waveguide effects are addressed by consideration of different refractive-index steps. We show that stronger competition between transverse modes occurs when their confinement in the waveguide is increased. Selection of a particular high-order transverse mode by use of azimuthal-dependent current profiling can be obtained over a wide current range. We study the alternate current modulation of two orthogonal high-order transverse modes, taking into account thermal effects. This current-induced spatial switching leads to good-quality high-frequency beam steering in the laser azimuthal direction when an appropriate current profile is considered according to the refractive-index step.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(140.3300) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam shaping
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
A. Valle, P. Rees, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, "High-frequency beam steering in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: optical gain and waveguiding effects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2045-2054 (1999)