Based on a numerical optical model for calculating threshold material gain in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, we investigate the influence of transverse-optical confinement in airpost, regrown, and oxidized structures. In each of these cases, we demonstrate the trade-off that needs to be made between low threshold for the fundamental laser mode and good modal stability.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
Peter Bienstman, Bart Demeulenaere, Bart Dhoedt, and Roel Baets, "Simulation results of transverse-optical confinement in airpost, regrown, and oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2055-2059 (1999)