Five nominally undoped BaTiO<sub>3</sub> crystals, processed at oxygen partial pressures of 1, 10<sup>−5</sup>, 10<sup>−8</sup>, 10<sup>−11</sup>, and 10<sup>−14</sup> atm at 900 °C, were fabricated and systematically investigated. The compensation point was found to be near the annealing level of 10<sup>−10</sup>-atm oxygen partial pressure. Annealing can vary dark conductivity, the effects of deep–shallow traps and hole–electron competition, and photorefractive properties such as two-beam coupling and response time.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
(190.7070) Nonlinear optics : Two-wave mixing
J. Y. Chang, C. Y. Huang, R. R. Yueh, and C. F. Chu, "Effects of the annealing atmosphere on the photorefractive properties of BaTiO3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 270-274 (1999)