OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 16, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 1999
  • pp: 861–870

Cross sections of photoionization and ac Stark shift measured from Doppler-free BX(0,0) excitation spectra of CO

M. D. Di Rosa and R. L. Farrow  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 16, Issue 5, pp. 861-870 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (359 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Using high-resolution, Doppler-free spectroscopy, we recorded through resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization the response of two-photon rotational lines of the Q-branch of CO BX(0, 0) to an independent photoionizing optical field. In direct proportion to the photoionization intensity, transitions Q(0)Q(12) were lifetime broadened and shifted toward positive frequency, from which we extracted absolute cross sections of photoionization (σi) and Stark shift (σs), respectively. Cross sections of σi=10±3×10-18 cm2 and σs=7±2×10-18 cm2 were determined for the case of photoionizing light at 230 nm, tuned in near resonance with the two-photon transition. Photoionization by 345-nm light resulted in similar cross sections, of σi=6±2×10-18 cm2 and σs=8±2×10-18 cm2. We observed a variation of σi and σs with rotational level for photoionization at 230 nm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.6580) Atomic and molecular physics : Stark effect
(260.5210) Physical optics : Photoionization
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
(300.6410) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, multiphoton
(300.6540) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultraviolet

M. D. Di Rosa and R. L. Farrow, "Cross sections of photoionization and ac Stark shift measured from Doppler-free B ← X(0, 0) excitation spectra of CO," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 861-870 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. W. Loge, J. J. Tiee, and F. B. Wampler, “Multiphoton induced fluorescence and ionization of carbon monoxide (B 1Σ+),” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 196–202 (1983). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Wurm, P. Feulner, and D. Menzel, “Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of X 1Σ+ and a3Π carbon monoxide using electron stimulated desorption as a source for rovibronically excited species,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6673–6687 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. L. F. DiMauro and T. A. Miller, “Laser-induced fluorescence of CO+ and the CO a3Πi state produced by multiphoton absorption in a supersonic jet,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 138, 175–180 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Looney, J. E. Harrington, K. C. Smyth, T. R. O’Brian, and T. B. Lucatorto, “Measurement of CO pressures in the ultrahigh vacuum regime using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 3111–3120 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Aldén, S. Wallin, and W. Wendt, “Applications of two-photon absorption for detection of CO in combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 33, 205–208 (1984). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Haumann, J. M. Seitzman, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-photon digital imaging of CO in combustion flows using planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 11, 776–778 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Seitzman, J. Haumann, and R. K. Hanson, “Quantitative two-photon LIF imaging of carbon monoxide in combustion gases,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2892–2899 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Everest, C. R. Shaddix, and K. C. Smyth, “Quantitative two-photon laser-induced fluorescence imaging of CO in flickering CH4/Air diffusion flames,” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1161–1169.
  9. N. Georgiev and M. Aldén, “Two-dimensional imaging of flame species using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1229–1237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. H. Tjossem and K. C. Smyth, “Multiphoton excitation spectroscopy of the B 1Σ+ and C 1Σ+ Rydberg states of CO,” J. Chem. Phys. 91, 2041–2047 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Bernstein, A. Fein, J. B. Choi, T. A. Cool, R. C. Sausa, S. L. Howard, R. J. Locke, and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-based flame species profile measurements: a comparison with flame model predictions,” Combust. Flame 92, 85–105 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. W. R. Ferrell, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, and R. D. Willis, “Two-resonance step ionization spectroscopy of CO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 97, 460–466 (1983). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Bergström, H. Lundberg, and A. Persson, “Investigations of stimulated emission on B–A lines in CO,” Z. Phys. D 21, 323–327 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Kroll and W. K. Bischel, “Two-photon absorption and photoionization cross-section measurements in the 5p56p configuration of xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 1340–1349 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. Hart and O. L. Bourne, “High-resolution coherent vuv spectroscopy of NO[C2Π(1)~B2Π(10), B2Π(11)] and CO[B1Σ+(0)],” Chem. Phys. 133, 103–112 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. R. E. Imhof, F. H. Read, and S. T. Beckett, “Determination of the transition moment of the B 1Σ+–X 1Σ+ transition in CO,” J. Phys. B 5, 896–902 (1972). [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Moore, Jr., and D. W. Robinson, “Study of some electronic transition probabilities in CO and CN*,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4870–4874 (1968). [CrossRef]
  18. J. F. M. Aarts and F. J. de Heer, “Emission of radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet by impact of electrons on carbon monoxide,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5354–5360 (1970). [CrossRef]
  19. L. W. Dotchin, E. L. Chupp, and D. J. Pegg, “Radiative lifetimes and pressure dependence of the relaxation rates of some vibronic levels in N2+, N2, CO+ and CO*,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3960–3967 (1973). [CrossRef]
  20. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, and P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an optical Stark effect on vibrational and rotational transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620–623 (1980). [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Farrow and L. A. Rahn, “Optical Stark splitting of rotational Raman transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 395–398 (1982). [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Quesada, A. M. F. Lau, D. H. Parker, and D. W. Chandler, “Observation and theory of Autler Townes splitting in multiphoton ionization of molecules: a new measurement technique of vibronic transition moments,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4107–4110 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Normand, L.-A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, J. Morellec, M. Ferray, J. Lavancier, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Ac Stark shifts induced by a YAG laser in the nP and nF Rydberg series in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1513–1518 (1989). [CrossRef]
  24. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer, New York, 1996), p. 473.
  25. S. Xu, G. Sha, B. Jiang, W. Sun, X. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Two-color study of Autler–Townes splitting and ac Stark shift in multi-photon ionization spectra of CO,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 6122–6124 (1994). [CrossRef]
  26. B. Girard, N. Billy, J. Vigue, and J. C. Lehmann, “Evidence for a dynamical Stark effect in CO(A1Π) two-photon excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 102, 168–173 (1992). [CrossRef]
  27. R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, and D. J. Rakestraw, “Saturation effects in gas-phase degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy: nonperturbative calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1508–1520 (1993). [CrossRef]
  28. A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompré, D. Normand, X. Tang, and P. Lambropoulos, “Theoretical aspects of three-photon two-color ionization through ac-Stark-shifted resonant Rydberg states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1790–1795 (1989). [CrossRef]
  29. R. P. Saxon and J. Eichler, “Theoretical calculation of two-photon absorption cross section in atomic oxygen,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 199–34 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, 1983) pp. 78–81, 344–347.
  31. S. R. Drayson, “Rapid computation of the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 16, 611–614 (1976). [CrossRef]
  32. D. J. Bamford, R. P. Saxon, L. E. Jusinski, J. D. Buck, and W. K. Bischel, “Two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen at 200.6, 192.5, and 194.2 nm: absolute cross sections and collisional ionization rate constants,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 3259–3269 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. Rottke and H. Zacharias, “Sensitive detection of CO by tunable VUV laser excitation of the B 1Σ+ state,” Opt. Commun. 55, 87–90 (1985). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472–489 (1990).
  35. A. A. Radzig and B. M. Smirnov, Reference Data on Atoms, Molecules, and Ions, J. P. Toennies, ed., Vol. 31 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), pp. 443–444.
  36. P. A. Martin and M. Fehér, “CASSCF calculations of the multipole moments and dipole polarisability functions of the X 2Σ+ and A 2Π states of CO+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 491–496 (1995). [CrossRef]
  37. P. Erman, E. Rachlew-Kallne, and S. L. Sorenson, “Synchrotron radiation induced photoionization and photodissociation of carbon monoxide in the 14–35 eV region,” Z. Phys. D 30, 315–321 (1994). [CrossRef]
  38. K. M. Beck, K. A. H. German, and W. P. Hess, “Thermal state distributions deduced from (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of CO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 297–304 (1996). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited