OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 16, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 1999
  • pp: 1072–1079

Dynamics of refractive-index changes in a Nd:YAG laser crystal under excitation of Nd3+ ions

O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, D. V. Chausov, and A. P. Zinov’ev  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 16, Issue 7, pp. 1072-1079 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.16.001072


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (151 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The mechanism for refractive-index changes that accompany changes in population during pumping and amplification of an optical beam is studied in a Nd:YAG laser crystal by both resonant four-wave mixing and interferometric techniques. It is found that these refractive-index changes (connected with the difference in polarizability of excited and unexcited Nd3+ ions) have two components: a small noninertial component that accompanies an amplified optical pulse and the major changes that are intensified with a delay time of ∼3 µs. The latter effect is explained by population (or depopulation) of a higher-lying energy level  2(F2)5/2 of the 4f electron shell of Nd3+ ions, which has large polarizability in near-IR and visible light. The real part of the nonlinear optical resonant susceptibility of the inverted Nd:YAG caused by the refractive-index changes is also discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(190.4720) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities of condensed matter

Citation
O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, D. V. Chausov, and A. P. Zinov’ev, "Dynamics of refractive-index changes in a Nd:YAG laser crystal under excitation of Nd3+ ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1072-1079 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-16-7-1072


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. J. Damzen, R. P. M. Green, and K. S. Syed, “Self-adaptive solid-state oscillator formed by dynamic gain-gratings holograms,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1704–1706 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. P. Zinov’ev, and V. A. Vorob’ev, “Millisecond pulse repetitive Nd:YAG-laser with self-adaptive cavity formed by population gratings,” Opt. Commun. 152, 313–318 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, “Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726–2738 (1967). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Catunda and J. C. Castro, “Phase conjugation in GdAlO3:Cr3+ and ruby,” Opt. Commun. 63, 185–190 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Powell, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, and G. D. Wilke, “Four-wave mixing of Nd3+-doped crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 8593–8602 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, and A. M. Prokhorov, “Deformation of resonator of Nd-glass laser caused by polarizability changing of excited Nd ions,” Quantum Electron. 8, 275–279 (1978). (Sov.)
  7. A. Brignon and J.-P. Huignard, “Two-wave mixing in Nd:YAG by gain saturation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1639–1641 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. P. M. Green, S. Camacho-Lopez, and M. J. Damzen, “Experimental investigation of vector phase conjugation in Nd3+:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1214–1216 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, and D. V. Chausov, “Nondegenerate four-wave mixing measurement of resonantly induced refractive index grating in Nd:YAG amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 23, 448–450 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, and D. V. Chausov, “Resonant refractive index and gain gratings measurements by four-wave mixings in Nd:YAG amplifier,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. Bosenberg and M. Feyer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 555– 560.
  11. O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, A. S. Kuzhelev, and D. V. Chausov, “Resonant two-wave mixing of optical beams by refractive index and gain gratings in inverted Nd:YAG,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2276–2282 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. O. L. Antipov, A. S. Kuzhelev, A. Yu. Luk’yanov, and A. P. Zinov’ev, “Refractive index changes of Nd:YAG laser crystal by Nd3+-ions excitation,” Quantum Electron. 25, (1998). (Rus.)
  13. O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, and A. S. Kuzhelev, “Stimulated resonance scattering of the light beam in the laser crystal with population inversion,” JETP Lett. 63, 13–16 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. O. L. Antipov, S. I. Belyaev, and A. S. Kuzhelev, “Phase conjugator of the light beams based on Nd:YAG-rod with the reciprocal feedback,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 411–416.
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1968).
  16. A. A. Kaminskii and B. M. Antipenko, Multilevel Operating Schemes of Crystalline Lasers (Nauka, Moscow, 1989).
  17. T. T. Basiev, A. Yu. Dergachev, Yu. V. Orlovscii, V. V. Osiko, and A. M. Prockhorov, “Multiphonon nano- and subnanosecond relaxation from high-lying levels of Nd3+-ions in laser fluorides and oxides,” Proc. General Phys. Inst. Russ. Acad. Sci. 46, 3–64 (1994).
  18. A. P. Bogatov and P. G. Eliseev, “Nonlinear refraction in semiconductor lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 465–494 (1985).
  19. G. P. Agrawal, “Population pulsations and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in semiconductor lasers and amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 147–159 (1988). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Françon and S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers: Application in Microscopy and Macroscopy (Academic, New York, 1971).
  21. P. K. Brazhnik, M. A. Novikov, and A. A. Pushkin, “Polarizing interferometers in photothermal spectroscopy,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 631–635 (1990).
  22. M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowskii, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 44–64 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. M. A. Kramer and R. W. Boyd, “Three photon absorption in Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 986–991 (1981). [CrossRef]
  24. G. J. Quarles, G. E. Venikouas, and R. C. Powell, “Sequential two-photon excitation processes of Nd3+ ions in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6935–6940 (1985). [CrossRef]
  25. T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Two-step excitation and blue fluorescence under continuous-wave pumping in Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1519–1525 (1986). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Pollnau, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Thermal lensing in end-pumped Nd:YAG under lasing and nonlasing conditions,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper CTuI1, pp. 100–101.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited