Characterization of a continuous-wave Raman laser in H_{2}
JOSA B, Vol. 16, Issue 8, pp. 1305-1312 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.16.001305
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Abstract
We present a time-dependent theory that describes the continuous-wave (cw) Raman laser in H_{2}. The time-dependent theory is compared with existing theories, and threshold measurements are taken. The relative intensity noise of the pump and the Stokes beams is measured and found to be in agreement with the predictions of the presented theory. The Raman laser decreases the relative intensity noise of the pump beam by 34 dB/Hz at a frequency of 30 kHz. In addition, the spectral heterodyne beat-note linewidth of the continuous-wave Raman laser is measured to be 8 kHz.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
OCIS Codes
(140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman
(190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman
(290.5910) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Raman
Citation
J. K. Brasseur, P. A. Roos, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, "Characterization of a continuous-wave Raman laser in H_{2}," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1305-1312 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-16-8-1305
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References
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- Ḋ_{13} and ρ˙_{31} from Ref. 8 are set to zero. The population difference of the ground state and the vibration state is assumed to be 1, since in 10 atm (7.6×10^{3} Torr) of H_{2}, only ~1 molecule in 10^{4} of the molecules available participate in the Raman process. In addition, the Raman linewidth is of the order of 510 MHz for 10 atm of H_{2}, which gives a coherence decay of ~2 ns, whereas the Raman cavity has a build-up time of ~1–10 μs; thus coherence effects can be ignored.
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- Since for our system the gain per pass of the Stokes beam is ~1×10^{−4}, the gain of the system can be treated as if it were linear [exp(G)→1+G]; thus a spatial average of the pump’s field inside the Raman laser cavity is sufficient to calculate the gain. The spatial average reduces the gain by a factor of 2. This factor of one-half is absent in Refs. 1 and 2 and should be included.
- We have an inhomogeneous differential equation, which is solved by a linear combination of the homogeneous solution and the particular solution such that the following boundary conditions are met. At time equal to zero the pump inside the cavity is zero, and at time equal to infinity our solution limits to T/(1−R), the result of a discrete sum of the fields inside an interferometer.
- All the fits used the following parameters: λ_{p(S)}=532 nm (683 nm), α=3.45×10^{−9} cm/W, R_{p(f )}=R_{p(b)}= 0.99980, R_{s(f )}=R_{s(b)}=0.99977, T_{p(f )}=156 ppm, l= 7.68 cm, β=0.001 [for Eq. (13)], b=18 cm. The equations were integrated numerically by use of the Bulstoer algorithm.
- To conserve energy the areas for the pump and the Stokes beams, used to calculate power, need to be identical and are normalized to the pump beam. The wavelength dependence of the area for the Stokes beam is included in the mode-filling parameter of Ref. 11.
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- This is the optical power that is coupled into the TEM_{00} mode of the HFC; the actual power at the entrance of the cavity was 1.1 mW.
- The measured photon conversion efficiency is smaller than the efficiency reported in Ref. 1 owing to additional exposures to atmospheric conditions; this increases the absorption of the mirrors of the HFC.
- The values for the pump and the Stokes mirror reflectivies were measured by a cavity ring-down. The values are R_{p(S)}=0.99979±0.00001 (0.99977±0.00001). The transmissions were T_{p}=(153±8) ppm, and T_{S}=(150± 20) ppm.
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- The absence of the EOM does not affect the cw Raman laser linewidth, since the narrowed pump linewidth is of the order of ~1 kHz, owing to instabilities in the HFC, and the Raman linewidth for the vibrational transition is 510 MHz. However, the HFC transforms frequency noise into amplitude noise, so that an EOM was added to increase the stability at frequencies near or above the cavity half-width for the RIN measurements.
- Vibrations on the optical table are of the order of 30 μg_{rms}, which occur at a frequency of 90 Hz.
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