OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 17, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2000
  • pp: 178–181

Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers

Balaji Srinivasan, Ravinder K. Jain, and Gérard Monnom  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 178-181 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.17.000178


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (111 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report precise quantification of the percentage of ion clusters in Er:ZBLAN fibers by measurement of nonsaturable optical absorption and fitting of these data to a simple theoretical model that includes the role of clustering. In particular, using this indirect measurement technique, we demonstrate that 51% of the ions are present in clusters in Er:ZBLAN fibers with an average doping density of 10, 000 parts per million, whereas similar fibers with an average doping density of 1, 000 parts per million show negligible effects of clustering. Application of this technique to the more precise design of 2.7-μm Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers, to the characterization of the fiber-drawing process, and to more precise determination of cross-relaxation parameters in Er:ZBLAN fibers are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared

Citation
Balaji Srinivasan, Ravinder K. Jain, and Gérard Monnom, "Indirect measurement of the magnitude of ion clustering at high doping densities in Er:ZBLAN fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 178-181 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-17-2-178


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, “Tunable continuous-wave, room-temperature Er3+-doped ZrF4based glass laser between 2.69 and 2.78 μm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1463–1464 (1988).
  2. E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, “980nm Diode-pumped continuous-wave mid-IR (2.7 μm) fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2340 (1998); B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “High power ‘watt-level’ cw operation of diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using efficient cross correlation and energy-transfer mechanisms,” Opt. Express 4, 490–495 (1999).
  3. K. F. Gibson and W. G. Kernohan, “Lasers in medicine: a review,” J. Med. Eng. Technol. 17, 51–57 (1993); R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, “Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery,” J. Derm. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112–118 (1994).
  4. R. S. Eng, J. F. Butler, and K. J. Linden, “Tunable diode-laser spectroscopy: an invited review,” Opt. Eng. 19, 945–960 (1980).
  5. M. Pollnau, “The route toward a diode-pumped 1-W erbium 3-μm fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982–1990 (1997).
  6. M. C. Brierley and P. W. France, “Continuous wave lasing at 2.7 μm in an erbium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 24, 935–937 (1988).
  7. B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, “40-mW Single-transverse-mode mid-IR (2.7-μm) cw output from a simple mirror-free 780-nm diode-pumpable fiber laser,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.
  8. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Energy transfer in Er3+/Pr3+-doped fluoride flass fibres and application to lasing at 2.7 μm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 445–447 (1991).
  9. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, C. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “150-mW unsaturated output power at 3 μm from a single-mode fiber erbium cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564–3566 (1995).
  10. V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Fluorescence from highly-doped erbium fluorozirconate glasses pumped at 800 nm,” Opt. Commun. 132, 73 (1996).
  11. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, “Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2487–2489 (1995).
  12. B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, R. Wyatt, and K. Moulding, “Optical and structural analysis of neodymiumdoped silica-based optical fiber,” Mater. Lett. 8, 204–208 (1989).
  13. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, “Laser cross section and quantum yield of Er3+ at 2.7 μm in a ZrF4-based fluoride glass,” Electron. Lett. 24, 909–910 (1988).
  14. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 14–16 (1989).
  15. V. K. Bogdanov, W. E. K. Gibbs, D. J. Booth, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, and D. R. MacFarlane, “Energy exchange processes in Er3+-doped fluorozirconate glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses & New Optical Materials, Sheffield, UK, September 6–10, 1998.
  16. X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, “Mirror-free, high power (~140 mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm cw fiber laser,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe), 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper.
  17. B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, “High-power (400-mW) diode-pumped 2.7 μm fiber lasers using enhanced Er–Er cross-relaxation processes,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1338–1340 (1999).
  18. D. Bayart, B. Clesca, L. Hamon, and J. L. Beylat, “Experimental investigation of the gain flatness characteristics for 1.55-μm erbium-doped fluoride fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 613–615 (1994).
  19. Y. Kimura and M. Nakazawa, “Gain characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with high erbium concentration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1120–1125 (1993).
  20. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. W. Baxter, “High dynamic range temperature point sensor using green fluorescence intensity ratio in erbiumdoped silica fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1349–1353 (1995).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited