Systematic studies of cooperative upconversion and Yb3+–Er3+ energy transfer in newly developed phosphate glasses were performed by a rate-equation formalism. The cooperative-upconversion coefficients of the 4I13/2 level for different Er3+ concentrations were determined from the luminescence-decay curves for high pump intensities. A small cooperative-upconversion coefficient of 1.1×10−18 cm3/s was obtained for a high Er3+ concentration of 4×1020 ions/cm3. Yb3+–Er3+ energy-transfer coefficients for an Er3+ concentration of 2×1020ions/cm3 codoped with different Yb3+ concentrations were calculated from the lifetime measurements of the 2F5/2 level of Yb3+ions. For Er3+ codoped with an Yb3+ concentration of 6×1020ions/cm3, an energy-transfer coefficient of 1.1×10−16 cm3/s and an energy-transfer efficiency higher than 95% were determined from our measurements under weak excitation. The cooperative-upconversion coefficients of Yb3+–Er3+-doped samples were found to be consistent with that of an Er3+-doped sample with the same Er3+ concentration. The weak cooperative-upconversion effect of high Er3+ concentrations and efficient Yb3+–Er3+ energy transfer indicate that these newly developed Er3+- and Yb3+–Er3+-doped phosphate glasses are excellent for active device applications.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
Bor-Chyuan Hwang, Shibin Jiang, Tao Luo, Jason Watson, Gino Sorbello, and Nasser Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+–Er3+-doped phosphate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833-839 (2000)