The master equation of mode locking written in operator notation is supplemented with noise-source terms that conserve commutator brackets. The noise sources are associated with the reservoirs responsible for loss and gain. The output of a mode-locked laser with the least possible quantum noise is determined.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
H. A. Haus, M. Margalit, and C. X. Yu, "Quantum noise of a mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1240-1256 (2000)