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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2001
  • pp: 1545–1553

Characterization of coherent population-trapping resonances as atomic frequency references

Svenja Knappe, Robert Wynands, John Kitching, Hugh G. Robinson, and Leo Hollberg  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 1545-1553 (2001)

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A low-cost, potentially compact and robust microwave frequency reference can be constructed by use of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent population-trapping resonances in Cs vapor cells. Fractional frequency instabilities of 2×10−11/√τ/s have been achieved with a minimum of 7×10−13 at τ= 1000 s. The performance of this device as a function of external parameters such as light intensity, optical detuning, and cell temperature is discussed. The dependence of the dark-line resonance signal on these parameters can be understood largely by means of a simple, three-level model. The short-term stability depends critically on the optical detuning, whereas the long-term stability is limited currently by line shifts due to drifts in cell temperature.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
(120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
(270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
(300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear

Svenja Knappe, Robert Wynands, John Kitching, Hugh G. Robinson, and Leo Hollberg, "Characterization of coherent population-trapping resonances as atomic frequency references," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1545-1553 (2001)

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