OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 2001
  • pp: 524–533

Wavelength variation of the second-order nonlinear coefficients of KNbO3, KTiOPO4, KTiOAsO4, LiNbO3, LiIO3, β- BaB2O4, KH2PO4, and LiB3O5 crystals: a test of Miller wavelength scaling

William J. Alford and Arlee V. Smith  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 524-533 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (206 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We measure second-order nonlinear coefficients using optical parametric amplification and second-harmonic generation over a range of wavelengths for the crystals KNbO<sub>3</sub>, KTiOPO<sub>4</sub>, KTiOAsO<sub>4</sub>, LiNbO<sub>3</sub>, LiIO<sub>3</sub>, β-BaB<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>, and LiB<sub>3</sub>O<sub>5</sub>. Combining our new measurements with previously reported values, we compare the wavelength variation of individual <i>d</i><sub>ijk</sub>’s with Miller scaling, and we conclude that Miller scaling is a useful approximation for these crystals.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers

William J. Alford and Arlee V. Smith, "Wavelength variation of the second-order nonlinear coefficients of KNbO3, KTiOPO4, KTiOAsO4, LiNbO3, LiIO3, β- BaB2O4, KH2PO4, and LiB3O5 crystals: a test of Miller wavelength scaling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 524-533 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, “Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268–2294 (1997).
  2. B. Boulanger, J. P. Feve, G. Marnier, and B. Menaert, “Methodology for optical studies of nonlinear crystals: application to the isomorph family KTiOPO4, KTiOAsO4, RbTiOAsO4, and CsTiOAsO4,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 239–256 (1998).
  3. B. Boulanger, J. P. Feve, G. Marnier, B. Menaert, X. Cabirol, P. Villeval, and C. Bonnin, “Relative sign and absolute magnitude of d(2) nonlinear coefficients of KTP from second-harmonic-generation measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 750–757 (1994).
  4. B. Boulanger, J. P. Feve, G. Marnier, C. Bonnin, P. Villeval, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute measurement of quadratic nonlinearities from phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a single KTP crystal cut as a sphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1380–1386 (1997).
  5. J.-J. Zondy, M. Abed, and A. Clairon, “Type-II frequency doubling at λ=1.30 μm and λ=2.53 μm in flux-grown potassium titanyl phosphate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2004–2015 (1994).
  6. R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17–19 (1964).
  7. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, New York, 1992).
  8. C. G. B. Garrett and F. N. H. Robinson, “Miller’s phenomenological rule for computing nonlinear susceptibilities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 328–329 (1966).
  9. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  10. D. J. Armstrong, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. V. Smith, “Absolute measurement of the effective nonlinearities of KTP and BBO crystals by parametric amplification,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2032–2040 (1996).
  11. Function 2D-mix-LP within SNLO. The SNLO nonlinear optics code is available from A. V. Smith.
  12. H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, and F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314–3316 (1988).
  13. T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1127–1129 (1999).
  14. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
  15. R. J. Gehr and A. V. Smith, “Separated-beam nonphase-matched second-harmonic method of characterizing nonlinear optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2298–2307 (1998).
  16. D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
  17. M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, “Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693–1906 (1976).
  18. A. Anema and T. Rasing, “Relative signs of the nonlinear coefficients of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5902–5904 (1997).
  19. E. C. Cheung, K. Koch, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Liu, “Measurements of second-order nonlinear optical coefficients from the spectral brightness of parametric fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 19, 168–170 (1994).
  20. T. Nishikawa and N. Uesugi, “Effects of walk-off and group velocity difference on the optical parametric generation in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4941–4947 (1995).
  21. H. Vanherzeele and J. D. Bierlein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 982–984 (1992).
  22. L. K. Cheng, L. T. Cheng, J. Galperin, P. A. M. Hotsenpiller, and J. D. Bierlein, “Crystal growth and characterization of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from the self-fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 137, 107–115 (1994).
  23. K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in KTiOAsO4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 881–883 (1994).
  24. Y. Uematsu, “Nonlinear optical properties of KNbO3 single crystal in the orthorhombic phase,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1362–1368 (1974).
  25. J.-C. Baumert, J. Hoffnagle, and P. Gunter, “Nonlinear optical effects in KNbO3 crystals at AlxGa1−xAs, dye, ruby and Nd:YAG laser wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 492, 374–385 (1984).
  26. R. Urschel, A. Fix, R. Wallenstein, D. Rytz, and B. Zysset, “Generation of tunable narrow-band midinfrared radiation in a type I potassium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 726–730 (1995).
  27. R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 922–933 (1990).
  28. G. Borsa, S. Castelletto, A. Godone, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of second-order optical nonlinear coefficient from the absolute radiant power of parametric fluorescence in LiIO3,” Opt. Rev. 4, 484–489 (1997).
  29. I. Shoji, H. Nakamura, K. Ohdaira, T. Kondo, R. Ito, T. Okamoto, K. Tatsuki, and S. Kubota, “Absolute measurement of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients of β-BaB2O4 for visible to ultraviolet second-harmonic wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 620–624 (1999).
  30. D. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
  31. S. P. Velsko, M. Webb, L. Davis, and C. Huang, “Phase-matched harmonic generation in lithium triborate (LBO),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2182–2192 (1991).
  32. S. Lin, Z. Sun, B. Wu, and C. Chen, “The nonlinear optical characteristics of a LiB3O5 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 634–638 (1990).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited