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Passively Q-switched self-frequency-doubled Nd^{3+}:GdCa_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} laser
Xingyu Zhang, Shengzhi Zhao, Qingpu Wang, Shujun Zhang, Lianke Sun, Xunmin Liu, Shaojun Zhang, and Huanchu Chen »View Author Affiliations
Xingyu Zhang, Shengzhi Zhao, Qingpu Wang
Department of Optics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
Shujun Zhang, Lianke Sun, Xunmin Liu, Shaojun Zhang, Huanchu Chen
State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Jinan 250100, China
JOSA B, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 770-779 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.18.000770
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Abstract
The performance of a flash-lamp-pumped self-frequency-doubled Nd^{3+}:GdCa_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB) laser that is passively Q switched with Cr^{4+}:YAG saturable absorbers is demonstrated. The maximum 0.53-μm pulse energy obtained is 2.6 mJ, and the maximum peak intensity is 15 MW/cm^{2}. The dependence of the pulse characteristics on the orientation of the saturable absorber and on the cavity length is measured. Meanwhile, the transversal distribution of the intracavity photon density is taken into account in the rate equations for an intracavity frequency-doubled passively Q-switched laser, and the solutions are used to account for the behavior of the passively Q-switched Nd:GdCOB laser.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
Citation
Xingyu Zhang, Shengzhi Zhao, Qingpu Wang, Shujun Zhang, Lianke Sun, Xunmin Liu, Shaojun Zhang, and Huanchu Chen, "Passively Q-switched self-frequency-doubled Nd^{3+}:GdCa_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 770-779 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-18-6-770
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References
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Bass, M.
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Benitez, J. M.
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Brun, A.
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- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- S. Camacho-Lopez, R. P. M. Green, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Intensity-induced birefringence in Cr^{4+}:YAG,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 209–219 (1997).
- S. Camacho-Lopez, R. P. M. Green, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Intensity-induced birefringence in Cr^{4+}:YAG,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 209–219 (1997).
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- J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1995).
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
Eilers, H.
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- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
Gaeta, A. L.
- T. T. Kajava and A. L. Gaeta, “Intra-cavity frequency-doubling of a Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched with GaAs,” Opt. Commun. 137, 93–97 (1997).
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
- S. Camacho-Lopez, R. P. M. Green, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Intensity-induced birefringence in Cr^{4+}:YAG,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 209–219 (1997).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- J. E. Murray and S. E. Harris, “Pulse lengthening via overcoupled internal second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 609–613 (1970).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
Huber, G.
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
- T. T. Kajava and A. L. Gaeta, “Intra-cavity frequency-doubling of a Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched with GaAs,” Opt. Commun. 137, 93–97 (1997).
- Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr^{4+} ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
- J. Liu and D. Kim, “Optimization of intracavity doubled passively Q-switched solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1724–1730 (1999).
Klimov, I. V.
Kokta, M. R.
- Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr^{4+} ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- J. Liu and D. Kim, “Optimization of intracavity doubled passively Q-switched solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1724–1730 (1999).
Midorikawa, K.
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
- J. E. Murray and S. E. Harris, “Pulse lengthening via overcoupled internal second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 609–613 (1970).
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
Pelenc, D.
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- J. Bartschke, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, I. V. Klimov, V. B. Tsvetkov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched self-frequency-doubling Nd:YAB laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3452–3456 (1997).
- Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr^{4+} ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
Speth, J. A.
Stein, R. A.
- A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
Van Stryland, E.
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
- W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
Wang, C.
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- P. Yankov, “Cr^{4+}:YAG Q-switching of Nd:host laser oscillators,” J. Phys. D 27, 1118–1120 (1994).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
Appl. Phys. B
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
Appl. Phys. Lett.
- H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Denis, S. M. Jacobson, and W. M. Yen, “Saturation of 1.064 μm absorption in Cr, Ca:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12} crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958–2960 (1992).
IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
- J. Liu and D. Kim, “Optimization of intracavity doubled passively Q-switched solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1724–1730 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1995).
- J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr^{4+} ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.
- Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO_{4}/KTP green laser with Cr^{4+}:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
J. Appl. Phys.
- W. G. Wagner and B. A. Lengyel, “Evolution of the giant pulse in a laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2040–2046 (1963).
- A. Szabo and R. A. Stein, “Theory of laser giant pulsing by a saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1562–1566 (1965).
- J. E. Murray and S. E. Harris, “Pulse lengthening via overcoupled internal second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 609–613 (1970).
J. Cryst. Growth
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
J. Mod. Opt.
- S. Camacho-Lopez, R. P. M. Green, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Intensity-induced birefringence in Cr^{4+}:YAG,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 209–219 (1997).
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B
- J. Bartschke, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, I. V. Klimov, V. B. Tsvetkov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched self-frequency-doubling Nd:YAB laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3452–3456 (1997).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of passively Q-switched lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1166–1175 (2000).
- A. V. Kir’yanov, V. Aboites, and I. V. Mel’nikov, “Second-harmonic generation by Nd^{3+}:YAG/Cr^{4+}:YAG-laser pulses with changing state of polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1657–1664 (2000).
J. Optoelectron. Laser
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
J. Phys. D
- P. Yankov, “Cr^{4+}:YAG Q-switching of Nd:host laser oscillators,” J. Phys. D 27, 1118–1120 (1994).
Laser Phys.
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
Opt. Commun.
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
- T. T. Kajava and A. L. Gaeta, “Intra-cavity frequency-doubling of a Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched with GaAs,” Opt. Commun. 137, 93–97 (1997).
Opt. Lett.
Opt. Mater.
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
Phys. Rev. B
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
Other
- W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 10.
- F. Auge, F. Mougel, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, “Efficient cw and Q-switch operation of a self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}Gd_{1−x}Nd_{x}B_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB) crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 530, paper CFF3.
2000, Wang, Opt. Commun.
- C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, Z. Shao, and H. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
2000, Kir’yanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B
1999, Suda, IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
- A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, “Absorption and oscillation characteristics of apulsed Cr^{4+}:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548–1553 (1999).
- G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. Van Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, “Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr^{4+} in yttrium aluminum garnet,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086–1091 (1999).
- J. Liu and D. Kim, “Optimization of intracavity doubled passively Q-switched solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1724–1730 (1999).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, B. Ozygus, and H. Weber, “Modeling of diode-pumped actively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1912–1918 (1999).
- S. Zhang, Z. Cheng, J. Han, G. Zhou, Z. Shao, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and H. Chen, “Growth and investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd_{x}Gd_{1−x}Ca_{4}O(BO_{3})_{3} crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 206, 197–202 (1999).
- D. Vivien, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Pelenc, “Neodymium-activated Ca_{4}GdB_{3}O_{10} (Nd:GdCOB): a multifunctional material exhibiting both laser and nonlinear optical properties,” Laser Phys. 8, 759–753 (1998).
- F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 533–535 (1998).
1998, Zhang, Opt. Commun.
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Laser diode pumped Cr^{4+}:YAG passively Q-switched Nd^{3+}:SFAP laser,” Opt. Commun. 155, 55–60 (1998).
- Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr^{4+} ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292–299 (1998).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, S. Wang, L. Sun, S. Zhang, G. Yao, and Z. Zhang, “Measurement of absorption cross section and ground state recovery time of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable absorber,” J. Optoelectron. Laser 9, 453–457 (1998) (in Chinese).
- X. Zhang, S. Zhao, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, L. Sun, and S. Zhang, “Optimization of Cr^{4+}-doped saturable-absorber Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2286–2294 (1997).
- W. G. Ostroumov, F. Heine, S. Kück, G. Huber, V. A. Mikhailov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:LaSc_{3}(BO_{3})_{4} lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 301–305 (1997).
- Y. F. Chen, “Passive Q-switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO_{4}/KTP green laser with Cr^{4+}:YAG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1481–1483 (1997).
1997, Camacho-Lopez, J. Mod. Opt.
- S. Camacho-Lopez, R. P. M. Green, G. J. Crofts, and M. J. Damzen, “Intensity-induced birefringence in Cr^{4+}:YAG,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 209–219 (1997).
- T. T. Kajava and A. L. Gaeta, “Intra-cavity frequency-doubling of a Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched with GaAs,” Opt. Commun. 137, 93–97 (1997).
- F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hurbert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd^{3+}:Ca_{4}GdO(BO_{3})_{3} (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
- J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the optimally coupled Q-switched laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214–220 (1995).
- J. J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
- P. Yankov, “Cr^{4+}:YAG Q-switching of Nd:host laser oscillators,” J. Phys. D 27, 1118–1120 (1994).
- H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, S. M. Jacobsen, W. M. Yen, K. R. Hoffman, and W. Jia, “Spectroscopy and dynamics of Cr^{4+}:Y_{3}Al_{5}O_{12},” Phys. Rev. B 49, 15, 505–15, 513 (1994).
- H. Eilers, W. M. Dennis, W. M. Yen, S. Küch, K. Peterman, G. Huber, and W. Jia, “Performance of a Cr:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2508–2512 (1993).
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