OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 18, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2001
  • pp: 1206–1211

Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion

Olli Nordman, Nina Nordman, and Valfrid Pashkevich  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 1206-1211 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (143 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

Olli Nordman, Nina Nordman, and Valfrid Pashkevich, "Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1206-1211 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. V. Kolobov and S. R. Elliott, “Photodoping of amorphous chalcogenides by metals,” Adv. Phys. 40, 625–684 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyma, “Electron-beam-induced refractive-index change of amorphous semiconductors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1079–1080 (1975). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Nishihara, “Direct writing technique using a scanning electron microscope: Fabrication of optical gratings in amorphous chalcogenide films,” in Technical Digest of the First International Conference on Integrated Optics and Fiber Communication (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Tokyo, 1977), pp. 587–590.
  4. H. Nishihara, Y. Handa, T. Suhara, and J. Koyama, “Direct writing of optical gratings using a scanning electron microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2342–2345 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Scanning-electron-microscope-written gratings in chalcogenide films for optical integrated films,” Appl. Opt. 18, 248–252 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Integrated grating circuit for guided-beam multiple division fabricated by electron-beam direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 5, 309–311 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Microgratings for high-efficiency guided-beam deflection fabricated by electron-beam direct-writing techniques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2842–2847 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Suhara, Y. Handa, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Monolithic integrated microgratings and photodiodes for wavelength multiplexing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 120–122 (1982). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, “Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 845–867 (1986). [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Oldale and S. R. Elliott, “Reversible electron beam writing on a submicron scale in a superionic amorphous films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1801–1803 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Sergeev, A. A. Simashkevich, and S. D. Shutov, “Slanted superimposed diffraction gratings formed by an electron beam in amorphous arsenic sulfide films,” Quantum Electron. 24, 924–926 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Yoshikawa, O. Ochi, H. Nagai, and Y. Mizushima, “A new inorganic electron resist of high contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 161–163 (1977). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Singh, S. P. Beaumont, P. G. Bower, and C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Sub-50-nm lithography in amorphous Se–Ge inorganic resist by electron beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1002–1004 (19082). [CrossRef]
  14. N. Nordman and O. Nordman, “Electron beam induced refractive index change in amorphous As-S and As-Se thin films coated with different metals,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).
  15. C. P. McHardy, A. G. Fitzgerald, P. A. Moir, and M. Flynn, “The dissolution of metals in amorphous chalcogenides and the effects of electron and ultraviolet radiation,” J. Phys. C 20, 4055–4075 (1987). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Nordman and O. Salminen, “Thickness variations in amorphous As2S3 films induced by electron beams,” Solid State Commun. 100, 241–244 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. O. Nordman, N. Nordman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Electron beam induced changes in the refractive index and film thickness of amorphous AsxS100−x and AsxSe100−x films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6055–6058 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Nordman, O. Salminen, M. Kuittinen, and J. Turunen, “Diffractive phase elements by electron beam exposure of thin As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3683–3686 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. N. Nordman and O. Nordman, “Characterization of refractive index change induced by electron beam in amorphous thin As2S3 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1521–1534 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. O. Nordman and N. Nordman, “Hole formation induced by 488.0 nm light in 10 μm thick amorphous as-evaporated As2S3 films,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2833–2838 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Stradins, K. Shvarts, and J. Teteris, “The relation of photo and thermal components of photoinduced changes in amorphous semiconductors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 79–81 (1989). [CrossRef]
  22. N. Yoshida, M. Itoh, and K. Tanaka, “Photo- and electron-induced chemical modification in Ag-As(Ge)-S(Se) glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 749–752 (1996). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Ohto, M. Itoh, and K. Tanaka, “Optical and electrical properties of Ag-As-S glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 1034–1039 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. O. Nordman, N. Nordman, and A. Ozols, “Influence of the age of amorphous nonannealed As2S3 thin films on holographic properties,” Opt. Commun. 145, 38–42 (1998). [CrossRef]
  25. A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, “Relaxational self-enhancement of holographic gratings in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326–3334 (1994). [CrossRef]
  26. T. I. Kosa, T. Wagner, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Index of refraction of Ag-doped As37S67 films: measurement and analysis of dispersion,” Philos. Mag. B 71, 311–318 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. J. B. Ramirez-Malo, E. Marquez, C. Corrales, J. Fernandez-Peña, J. Reyes, P. Villares, and R. Jimenez-Garay, “A new study of the refractive-index dispersion of Ag-photodoped thin films of As30S70 chalcogenide glass,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 44, 186–189 (1996). [CrossRef]
  28. N. Yoshida and K. Tanaka, “Photoinduced Ag migration in Ag-As-S glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 1745–1750 (1995). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited