The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
Olli Nordman, Nina Nordman, and Valfrid Pashkevich, "Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1206-1211 (2001)