The thermal diffusion of Nd3+ and Gd3+ ions in YVO4 is characterized, yielding diffusion rates of 7×10−19 and 44×10−19 m2 s−1, respectively, at 1400 °C and activation energies of 5.3×10−19 and 2.9×10−19 J, respectively, for diffusion along the c axis. The fluorescence properties of the Nd3+-diffused YVO4 agree well with those of bulk doped materials. The formation of a planar optical waveguide was also observed for one of the Nd3+-diffused samples. This characterization is a significant first step toward fabrication of waveguide lasers and amplifiers in this important laser material.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
Simon J. Hettrick, James S. Wilkinson, and David P. Shepherd, "Neodymium and gadolinium diffusion in yttrium vanadate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 33-36 (2002)