The thermal diffusion of Nd<sup>3+</sup> and Gd<sup>3+</sup> ions in YVO<sub>4</sub> is characterized, yielding diffusion rates of 7×10<sup>−19</sup> and 44×10<sup>−19</sup> m<sup>2</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>, respectively, at 1400 °C and activation energies of 5.3×10<sup>−19</sup> and 2.9×10<sup>−19</sup> J, respectively, for diffusion along the <i>c</i> axis. The fluorescence properties of the Nd<sup>3+</sup>-diffused YVO<sub>4</sub> agree well with those of bulk doped materials. The formation of a planar optical waveguide was also observed for one of the Nd<sup>3+</sup>-diffused samples. This characterization is a significant first step toward fabrication of waveguide lasers and amplifiers in this important laser material.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
Simon J. Hettrick, James S. Wilkinson, and David P. Shepherd, "Neodymium and gadolinium diffusion in yttrium vanadate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 33-36 (2002)