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## Controllable double-well magnetic traps for neutral atoms

Jianjun Hu and Jianping Yin »View Author Affiliations

*Key Laboratory for Optical and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China, and Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006, China*

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 12, pp. 2844-2851 (2002)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.19.002844

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### Abstract

We propose two double-well magnetic traps for cold neutral atoms that use current-carrying wires. These traps can be used to trap two different atomic species. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields, gradients, and curvatures from these two wire configurations were calculated and analyzed. Our study shows that the double-well traps proposed here can be continuously changed into single-well traps by reduction of the current in a wire (or a coil) and vice versa and that a maximum field gradient greater than 5×10^{4} G/cm and a maximum field curvature (at each trap center) greater than 2.5×10^{7} G/cm^{2} can be generated in our double-well traps and used to achieve two-species Bose–Einstein condensations and study the properties of double-well Bose–Einstein condensations or to achieve sympathetic cooling between two atomic samples or even to achieve two-species magneto-optical traps and study cold collisions between two atomic samples.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics

(020.7010) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser trapping

(020.7490) Atomic and molecular physics : Zeeman effect

(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

**Citation**

Jianjun Hu and Jianping Yin, "Controllable double-well magnetic traps for neutral atoms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **19**, 2844-2851 (2002)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-12-2844

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### References

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- A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
- U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).
- Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
- T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
- J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
- D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
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- R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
- M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
- J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).
- P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).

**Antunes, A.**

- G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
- M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).

**Aspect, A.**

- G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).

**Ba, X.-W.**

- H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).

**Bagnato, V. S.**

- L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
- M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
- M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).

**Bergeman, T.**

- T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).

**Bigelow, N. N. P.**

- H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
- H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).

**Bigelow, N. P.**

- Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
- J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
- C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).

**Biglow, N. P.**

- J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).

**Bohn, J. L.**

- J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).

**Bouyer, P.**

- G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).

**Boyer, V.**

**Burke Jr., J. P.**

- J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).

**Burt, E. A.**

- C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).

**Busch, Th.**

- Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

**Calarco, T.**

- D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).

**Cardoma, P. S. P.**

**Carnal, O.**

- O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).

**Cassettari, D.**

- D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).

**Castin, Y.**

- A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).

**Chalupczak, W.**

- J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
- J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).

**Chenet, A.**

**Cirac, J. I.**

- Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

**Collett, M. J.**

- M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).

**Cooper, J.**

- J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

**Cornell, E. A.**

- P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
- D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
- J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).
- D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
- C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).

**Corney, J.**

- G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).

**Dalfovo, F.**

- M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).

**Dalibard, J.**

- A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).

**Delannoy, G.**

**Drndic, M.**

- J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).
- M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).

**Eberly, J. H.**

- C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).

**Ejnisman, R.**

- Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).

**Engler, H.**

- U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

**Ensher, J. R.**

- P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
- D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).

**Erez, G.**

- T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).

**Esry, B. D.**

**Faulstich, A.**

- O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).

**Fedichev, P. O.**

**Flemming, J.**

- M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).

**Folman, R.**

**Fort, C.**

- M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).

**Ghrist, R. W.**

**Greene, C. H.**

**Grimm, R.**

- A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
- U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

**Grisenti, R. E.**

- R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).

**Hall, D. S.**

- D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).

**Hänsch, T. W.**

- J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
- W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
- J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).

**Hansel, W.**

- J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
- W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
- J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).

**Helmerson, K.**

**Hessmo, B.**

**Ho, T.-L.**

- T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).

**Holland, M.**

**Holthaus, M.**

- M. Holthaus, “Towards coherent control of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a double well,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 011601 (2001).

**Hommelhoff, P.**

**Jack, M. W.**

- M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).

**Johnson, K. S.**

- J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).
- M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).

**Josse, V.**

**Karft, S.**

- A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).

**Kruger, P.**

**Law, C. K.**

**Libbrecht, K. G.**

- P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).

**Maddaloni, P.**

**Maier, T.**

**Manson, J. R.**

- R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).

**Marcassa, L. G.**

- L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
- G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).

**Matthews, M. R.**

**Metsalf, H. J.**

**Miburn, G. J.**

- G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).

**Minardi, F.**

**Miranda, S. G.**

**Mlynek, J.**

**Modugno, M.**

**Mosk, A.**

**Mudrich, M.**

**Muniz, S. R.**

**Murdoch, S. G.**

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