OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2002
  • pp: 177–182

High-precision measurement of optical frequency differences between Q-switched laser pulses using photo-electromotive-force sensors

Chen-Chia Wang, Sudhir Trivedi, Feng Jin, Ken Jia, Hongbo He, Greg Elliott, and Jacob Khurgin  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 2, pp. 177-182 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (196 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate the measurement of optical frequency differences between <i>Q</i>-switched laser pulses by using photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) optical frequency sensors. The presence of high-peak-power laser pulses affords the photo-EMF frequency sensor with ultrafast response times limited only by the free-carrier lifetime of the sensor material. Such fast response times lead to a broad dynamic range for optical difference frequency measurements with an experimentally demonstrated frequency detection bandwidth in excess of 50 MHz, limited only by the capability of our test equipment. Such a large dynamic range for optical frequency detection makes photo-EMF sensors ideal candidates for adaptive remote sensing of high-speed objects.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

Chen-Chia Wang, Sudhir Trivedi, Feng Jin, Ken Jia, Hongbo He, Greg Elliott, and Jacob Khurgin, "High-precision measurement of optical frequency differences between Q-switched laser pulses using photo-electromotive-force sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 177-182 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostal, “Measuring vibration amplitudes in the picometer range using moving light gratings in photoconductive GaAs: Cr,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1239–1241 (1990).
  2. I. Lahiri, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, R. A. Kruger, G. D. Bacher, and M. B. Klein, “Laser-based ultrasound detection using photorefractive quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1041–1043 (1998).
  3. C.-C. Wang, F. Davidson, and S. Trivedi, “Simple laser velocimeter that uses photoconductive semiconductors to measure optical frequency differences,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6496–6499 (1995).
  4. M. Arroyo Carrasco, P. Rodriguez Montero, and S. Stepanov, “Measurement of coherent length of superluminescent diode irradiation with photo-EMF based adaptive photodetector,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  5. F. Jin, J. Khurgin, S. Trivedi, C.-C. Wang, and E. Gad, “Displacement measurement and surface profiling using semi-insulating photoconductive semiconductors and linearly frequency-ramped lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1374–1376 (1999).
  6. C.-C. Wang, S. Trivedi, F. Jin, J. Khurgin, D. Temple, U. Hommerich, E. Gad, F.-S. Choa, Y.-S. Wu, and A. Corder, “Interferometer-less coherent optical range finder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 666–672 (2001).
  7. J. A. Coy, D. D. Nolte, G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, B. Pouet, G. D. Bacher, and M. B. Klein, “Asymmetric interdigitated metal–semiconductor–metal contacts for improved adaptive photoinduced-electromotive-force detectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 697–704 (2000).
  8. T. Yanagisawa, K. Asaka, and Y. Hirano, “1.5-μm coherent lidar using a single longitudinal-mode diode pumped Q-switched Er, Yb:glass laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 49 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000).
  9. P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  10. G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637–1645 (1983).
  11. R. N. Schwartz, M. Ziari, and S. Trivedi, “Electron paramagnetic resonance and an optical investigation of photorefractive vanadium-doped CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 5274–5282 (1994).
  12. N. Korneev, S. Mansurova, and S. Stepanov, “Nonstationary current in bipolar photoconductor with slow photoconductivity relaxation,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2925–2931 (1995).
  13. D. Ritter, E. Zeldov, and K. Weiser, “Ambipolar transport in amorphous semiconductors in the lifetime and relaxation time regimes investigated by the steady-state photocarrier grating technique,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8296–8304 (1988).
  14. C.-C. Wang, R. A. Linke, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, and S. Trivedi, “Enhanced detection bandwidth for optical doppler frequency measurements using moving space charge field effects in GaAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2034–2036 (1997).
  15. G. S. Elliott and T. J. Beutner, “A review of recent ad-vancements in molecular filter based planar Doppler velocimetry systems,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 35, 799–845 (1999).
  16. J. F. Meyers and H. Komine, “Doppler global velocimetry: a new way to look at velocity,” Laser Anemom. Int. Conf., 4th 1, 289–296 (1991).
  17. J. F. Meyers, J. W. Lee, M. T. Fletcher, and B. W. South, “Hardening Doppler global velocimetry systems for large wind tunnel applications,” AIAA Paper 98–2606 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., New York, New York, 1998).
  18. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1981).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited