OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2002
  • pp: 1195–1203

Dynamic modifications to the plasmon resonance of a metallic nanoparticle coupled to a planar waveguide: beyond the point-dipole limit

Brian J. Soller and Dennis G. Hall  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 5, pp. 1195-1203 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (223 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show that the effects of a nearby surface on the plasmon resonance of a metallic nanoparticle of finite size can be modeled by expanding the secondary local field at the particle position in terms of an integral expansion of elementary waves that has the form of a Sommerfeld integral. In this way it is a straightforward matter to apply the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surface to the secondary field and thus derive a corrected expression for the effective polarizability of the particle. We apply our theoretical result to particles near metal-clad and multilayer-dielectric waveguides and show that a substantial amount of the light scattered by a particle can propagate radially outward confined to the guided modes of the substrate.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(310.2790) Thin films : Guided waves

Brian J. Soller and Dennis G. Hall, "Dynamic modifications to the plasmon resonance of a metallic nanoparticle coupled to a planar waveguide: beyond the point-dipole limit," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1195-1203 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. K. Drexhage, “Interaction of light with monomolecular dye layers,” in Progress in Optics XII, E. Wolf, ed. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1974), pp. 163–232.
  2. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
  3. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
  4. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765–7768 (1983).
  5. M. J. Bloemer, J. G. Mantovani, J. P. Goudonnet, D. R. James, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrell, “Observation of driven surface-plasmon modes in metal particulates above tunnel junctions,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 5947–5954 (1987).
  6. H. G. Bingler, H. Brunner, M. Klenke, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced second harmonic generation in a silver-spacer-islands multilayer system,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 7499–7505 (1993).
  7. F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and H. Gold, “Optical second-harmonic generation of metal-island films,” Appl. Phys. A A60, 97–101 (1995).
  8. G. S. Agarwal and S. D. Gupta, “Interaction between surface plasmons and localized plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 3607–3611 (1985).
  9. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
  10. S. Nie and S. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
  11. S. Emory, W. E. Haskins, and S. Nie, “Direct observation of size-dependent optical enhancement in single metal nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 8009–8010 (1998).
  12. M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
  13. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Absorption enhancement in silicon-on-insulator waveguides using metal island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2327–2329 (1996).
  14. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, “Enhanced dipole-dipole interaction between elementary radiators near a surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663–5666 (1998).
  15. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. U. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
  16. G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 25, 377–445 (1908).
  17. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, in Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), Chaps. 5 and 12.
  18. The term depolarization field is often used in the literature, and we adopt its use here. We point out, however, that this contribution to the total field can also be polarizing as opposed to depolarizing. In the language of scattering, the depolarization field is the scattered field.
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1980).
  20. M. Meier, A. Wokaun, and P. F. Liao, “Enhanced fields on rough surfaces: dipolar interactions among particles of sizes exceeding the Rayleigh limit,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10335–10338 (1996).
  21. E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, “An accurate electromagnetic theory of surface enhancement factors for Ag, Au, Cu, Li, Al, Ga, In, Zn, and Cd,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 634–643 (1987).
  22. T. Takemori, M. Inoue, and K. Ohtaka, “Optical response of a sphere coupled to a metal substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587–1602 (1987).
  23. M. Wind, P. Bobbert, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, “Optical properties of 2D-systems of small particles on a substrate,” Physica A 157, 269–278 (1989).
  24. M. Wind, P. Bobbert, J. Vlieger, and D. Bedeaux, “The polarizability of truncated spheres and oblate spheroids on a substrate: comparison with experimental results,” Thin Solid Films 164, 57–62 (1988).
  25. P. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “The polarizability of a spheroidal particle on a substrate,” Physica A 147A, 115–141 (1987).
  26. P. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica A 137A, 209–242 (1986).
  27. G. Videen, M. Turner, V. Iafelice, W. Bickel, and W. Wolfe, “Scattering from a small sphere near a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 118–126 (1993).
  28. G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere on or near a surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 483–489 (1991); errata, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 844–845 (1992).
  29. E. Fucile, P. Denti, F. Borghese, R. Saija, and O. I. Sindoni, “Optical properties of a sphere in the vicinity of a plane surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1505–1514 (1997).
  30. M. Taubenblatt and T. Tran, “Calculation of light scattering from particles and structures on a surface by the coupled-dipole method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 912–919 (1993).
  31. B. Johnson, “Light scattering from a spherical particle on a conducting plane: I. Normal incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1341–1351 (1992); erratum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 766 (1993).
  32. B. Johnson, “Calculation of light scattering from a spherical particle on a surface by the multipole expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 326–337 (1996).
  33. T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun. 152, 376–384 (1998).
  34. I. Simonsen, R. Lazzari, J. Jupille, and S. Roux, “Numerical modeling of the optical response of supported metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 7722–7733 (2000).
  35. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
  36. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990), p. 65.
  37. A. Sommerfeld, “Ber die ausbreitung der wellen in der drahtlosen telegraphie,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 28, 665–737 (1909).
  38. In the absence of the surface, the induced polarization is entirely in the direction of the polarization of the incident field. However, an electric point dipole situated horizontally over a surface is described by a vector potential that has components in both the horizontal (z⁁) and the vertical (x⁁) directions.
  39. W. H. Weber and C. F. Eagen, “Energy transfer from an excited dye molecule to the surface plasmons of an adjacent metal,” Opt. Lett. 4, 236–238 (1979).
  40. G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
  41. For an excellent introduction to surface plasmons, see, for example, H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. III of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  42. Assuming homogeneous polarization throughout the particle volume allows us to extract the polarization term from the integrand as a constant.
  43. We have recently observed enhancement factors of greater than 25.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited