OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2002
  • pp: 1295–1300

Imaging of photonic nanopatterns by scanning near-field optical microscopy

H. J. Maas, A. Naber, H. Fuchs, U. C. Fischer, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 1295-1300 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (359 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We define photonic nanopatterns of a sample as images recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy with a locally excited electric dipole as a probe. This photonic nanopattern can be calculated by use of the Green’s dyadic technique. Here, we show that scanning near-field optical microscopy images of well-defined gold triangles taken with the tetrahedral tip as a probe show a close similarity to the photonic nanopattern of this nanostructure with an electric dipole at a distance of 15 nm to the sample and tilted 45° with respect to the scanning plane.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(240.4350) Optics at surfaces : Nonlinear optics at surfaces

H. J. Maas, A. Naber, H. Fuchs, U. C. Fischer, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Imaging of photonic nanopatterns by scanning near-field optical microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1295-1300 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. U. C. Fischer, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy,” in Scanning Probe Microscopy; Analytical Methods, R. Wiesendanger, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998).
  2. E. H. Synge, “A suggested method for extending microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region,” Philos. Mag. 6, 356–362 (1928).
  3. E. A. Ash and G. Nicholls, “Super-resolution aperture scanning microscope,” Nature 237, 510–512 (1972).
  4. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
  5. U. C. Fischer, “Optical characteristics of 0.1 mm circular apertures in a metal film as light sources for scanning ultramicroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386–390 (1985).
  6. A. Dereux, G. Girard, and J. C. Weeber, “Theoretical principles of near-field optical microscopies and spectroscopies,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7775–7789 (2000).
  7. T. Fujimura, T. Itoh, A. Imada, R. Shimada, T. Koda, N. Chiba, H. Muramatsu, H. Miyazaki, and K. Ohtaka, “Near-field optical images of ordered polystyrene particle layers and their photonic band effect,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 954–956 (2000).
  8. S. A. Magnitskii, A. V. Tarasishin, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Near-field optics with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 69, 497–500 (1999).
  9. Shanhui Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
  10. O. J. F. Martin, “3D simulations of the experimental signal measured in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 194, 235–239 (1999).
  11. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, J. S. Weiner, T. D. Harris, and R. Wolfe, “Polarization contrast in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4563–4568 (1992).
  12. Th. Huser, L. Novotny, Th. Lacoste, R. Eckert, and H. Heinzelmann, “Observation and analysis of near-field optical diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 141–148 (1999).
  13. U. C. Fischer, J. Koglin, and H. Fuchs, “The tetrahedral tip as a probe for scanning near field optical microscopy at 30 nm resolution,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 176, 231–237 (1994).
  14. J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “Material contrast in scanning near-field optical microscopy at 1–10 nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7977–7784 (1997).
  15. J. Ferber, U. C. Fischer, N. Hagedorn, and H. Fuchs, “Internal reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscopy with the tetrahedral tip on metallic samples,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 581–589 (1999).
  16. E. Betzig and J. Chichester, “Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Science 262, 1422–1428 (1993).
  17. H. Gersen, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5312–5315 (2000).
  18. U. C. Fischer, A. Dereux, and J. C. Weeber, “Controlling light confinement by excitation of localized surface plasmons,” in Near-Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polariton, S. Kawata, ed., Top. Appl. Phys. 81, 49–69 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
  19. J. Heimel, U. C. Fischer, and H. Fuchs, “SNOM/STM using a tetrahedral tip and a sensitive current-to-voltage converter,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 202, 53–59 (2001).
  20. P. Güthner, U. C. Fischer, and K. Dransfeld, “Scanning near-field acoustic microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 89–92 (1989).
  21. K. Karraï and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
  22. Th. Murdfield, U. C. Fischer, H. Fuchs, R. Volk, A. Michels, F. Meinen, and E. Beckman, “Acoustic and dynamic force microscopy with ultrasonic probes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 877–881 (1996).
  23. A. Naber, H.-J. Maas, K. Razavi, and U. C. Fischer, “A dynamic force distance control suited to various probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3955–3961 (1999).
  24. A. Naber, “The tuning fork as sensor for dynamic force distance control in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 194, 307–310 (1999).
  25. U. C. Fischer and H. P. Zingsheim, “Submicroscopic pattern replication with visible light,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 881–885 (1981).
  26. T. Kalkbrenner, M. Graf, C. Durkan, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, “High-contrast topography-free sample for near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1206–1208 (2000).
  27. U. C. Fischer, J. Heimel, H.-J. Maas, M. Hartig, S. Höppener, and H. Fuchs, “Latex bead projection nanopatterns,” Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 75–80 (2002).
  28. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
  29. All SNOM images are flattened in the first order line by line to subtract slow changes of the laser intensity. The contrast of SNOM images is defined as the difference from the lowest to the highest signal normalized to the mean value in the image. This normalization represents an arbitrary choice of a reference signal. The gray scale is adjusted to cover the maximal contrast in the image.
  30. C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
  31. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Generalized field propagator for electromagnetic scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526–529 (1995).
  32. O. J. F. Martin and N. B. Piller, “Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909–3915 (1998).
  33. L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Interference of locally excited surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1798–1806 (1997).
  34. J. D. Jackson, Klassische Elektrodynamik (De Gruyter, Berlin, 1981).
  35. We have also done numerical simulations for dipoles with a different angle with respect to the surface. The best correspondence between numerical and experimental images was achieved with a dipole tilted 45° to the scanning plane. A tolerance of ±10° can be stated, in which the photonic pattern does not change significantly.
  36. One referee insisted that we cite in this context the research of Michaelis et al.38 and of Sandogdhar.39 They use a single molecule as a probe for light microscopy of a sample similar to ours but by a factor of 10 larger. Their image shows a pattern that varies with the orientation of the triangles.38 They compared the image to simulated images extracted from unpublished data of O. Martin. The calculations performed with dipolar orientations within the scanning plane or perpendicular to the scanning plane reveal photonic nanopatterns that have a characteristic pattern. The experimental images38 and the calculated im ages have the property in common that the pattern differs for different orientations of the triangles. Sandogdhar concludes that a “quantitative comparison of calculations with the experimental results could reveal the dipole orientation.” 39 No conclusion was drawn about the orientation of the dipole, and therefore it is not clear whether a photonic pattern in our sense was observed at all.
  37. G. Colas des Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Chicane, T. David, A. Dereux, and D. Peyrade, “Optical analogy to elec-tronic quantum corrals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4950–4953 (2001).
  38. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandogdhar, “Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source,” Nature 405, 325–328 (2000).
  39. V. Sandogdhar, “Trends and developments in scanning near-field optical microscopy,” in Nanometer Scale Science and Technology, M. Allegrini, N. Garcia, and O. Marti, eds. (IOS Press, Washington D.C., 2001), pp. 60–115.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited