OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2003
  • pp: 2307–2312

Highly efficient photorefractive composites based on layered photoconductive polymers

O-Pil Kwon, Suck-Hyun Lee, Germano Montemezzani, and Peter Günter  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 11, pp. 2307-2312 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (171 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



High-performance photorefractive materials based on the layered photoconductive polymers PPT-CZ [rigid backbone of poly(p-phenyleneterephthalate) with pendent carbazole groups] are studied. The composites are composed of PPT-CZ and are doped with the sensitizer C60 and nonlinear optical chromophores. Despite the absence of a plasticizer and the lower concentration of the carbazole photoconductive moieties as compared with poly(N-vinyl carbazole), these materials show high photorefractive sensitivity, i.e., Sn2 of 70±7 cm2/kJ at E0=100 V/μm for PPT-CZ(n=12):diethylaminodicyanostyrene:C60. The low glass transition temperature (<0°C) leads to a high rotational mobility of the chromophores that results in large refractive-index changes. For all the composites that were investigated, the two-wave mixing gain Γ exceeds 100 cm-1 at an applied field of 50 V/μm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5140) Materials : Photoconductive materials
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics

O-Pil Kwon, Suck-Hyun Lee, Germano Montemezzani, and Peter Günter, "Highly efficient photorefractive composites based on layered photoconductive polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2307-2312 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I & II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  2. G. Montemezzani, C. Medrano, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, “The photorefractive effect in inorganic and organic materials,” in Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, P. Günter, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000), pp. 301–373.
  3. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997). [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymer photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 127–155 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Kippelen, Sandalphon, B. L. Volodin, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Organic polymers for photorefractive applications,” in Photonic and Optoelectronic Polymers, S. A. Jenekhe and K. J. Wynne, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 672, 218–235 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Carlen and D. J. McGee, “Influence of chromophore solubility on optical absorbtion and two-beam coupling gain in guest-host photorefractive polymer composites,” Opt. Commun. 152, 342–346 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “High-speed photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490–1492 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “An introduction to photorefractive polymers,” in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 465–513.
  12. O. P. Kwon, S. H. Lee, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Layer structured photoconducting polymers: a new class of photorefractive materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 434–438 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmer, L. Haussling, K. Siemensmeyer, K. H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, “Fast photoconduction in the highly ordered columnar phase of a discotic liquid crystal,” Nature (London) 371, 141–143 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Sasakawa, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Improved hole drift mobility in excimer-free polymers containing a dimeric carbazole unit,” Macromolecules 22, 4253–4259 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. E. Hendrickx, Y. D. Zhang, K. B. Ferrio, J. A. Herlocker, J. Anderson, N. R. Armstrong, E. A. Mash, A. P. Persoons, N. Peyghambarian, and B. Kippelen, “Photoconductive properties of PVK-based photorefractive polymer composites doped with fluorinated styrenechromophores,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2251–2258 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Onsager, “Initial recombination of ions,” Phys. Rev. 54, 554–557 (1938). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Sutter and P. Günter, “Photorefractive gratings in the organic crystal 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine doped with 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274–2278 (1990). [CrossRef]
  19. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electro-optic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979). [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Schildkraut and Y. Cui, “Zero-order and first-order theory of the formation of space-charge grating in photoconductive polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5055–5060 (1992). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Günter, “Holography coherent-light amplification and optical-phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199–299 (1982). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Montemezzani and P. Günter, “Inorganic and organic photorefractive materials,” in Notions and Perspectives of Nonlinear Optics, O. Keller, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), pp. 370–427.
  23. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “High performance photorefractive polymer with improved stability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Zhang, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, “Carbazole photorefractive materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 809–828 (1998). [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zhao, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1237–1242 (1995). [CrossRef]
  26. L. Pautmeier, R. Richert, and H. Bässler, “Poole-Frenkel behavior of charge transport in organic solids with off-diagonal disorder studied by Monte Carlo simulation,” Synth. Met. 37, 271–281 (1990). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited