We report results of cold-cavity numerical investigations of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with two-dimensional photonic crystals positioned in the laser cavity. The methodology of mode analysis is based on the computation of a normalized propagation constant that directly defines the number of guided modes in comparison with computation of B–V diagrams for the structure investigated. It is theoretically shown that the microcavity made by removing one hole is single mode for larger holes than a cavity made by removing several holes. A map obtained for single-mode conditions in the microcavity made by removing one hole for wavelengths 0.98-μm and 1.3 μm is presented, and it is shown that such lasers are easily accessible to modern fabrication processes. The optimum number of holes in the photonic crystal region and the spot size of the fundamental mode have been identified and are discussed.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
Pavel S. Ivanov, Heiko J. Unold, Rainer Michalzik, Juergen Maehnss, Karl J. Ebeling, and Igor A. Sukhoivanov, "Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2442-2447 (2003)