OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2003
  • pp: 2442–2447

Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals

Pavel S. Ivanov, Heiko J. Unold, Rainer Michalzik, Juergen Maehnss, Karl J. Ebeling, and Igor A. Sukhoivanov  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 2442-2447 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.20.002442


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (277 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report results of cold-cavity numerical investigations of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with two-dimensional photonic crystals positioned in the laser cavity. The methodology of mode analysis is based on the computation of a normalized propagation constant that directly defines the number of guided modes in comparison with computation of <i>B</i>–<i>V</i> diagrams for the structure investigated. It is theoretically shown that the microcavity made by removing one hole is single mode for larger holes than a cavity made by removing several holes. A map obtained for single-mode conditions in the microcavity made by removing one hole for wavelengths 0.98-μm and 1.3 μm is presented, and it is shown that such lasers are easily accessible to modern fabrication processes. The optimum number of holes in the photonic crystal region and the spot size of the fundamental mode have been identified and are discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

Citation
Pavel S. Ivanov, Heiko J. Unold, Rainer Michalzik, Juergen Maehnss, Karl J. Ebeling, and Igor A. Sukhoivanov, "Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2442-2447 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-20-12-2442


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. K. Iga, “Surface-emitting laser—its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1201–1215 (2000).
  2. R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, “Operating principles of VCSELs,” Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Devices, H. Li and K. Iga, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 53–98.
  3. P. S. Ivanov, I. A. Sukhoivanov, and V. V. Lysak, “Extended model of a VCSEL with non-uniform laser structure,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188, 961–966 (2001).
  4. L.-G. Zei, S. Ebers, J.-R. Kropp, and K. Petermann, “Noise performance of multimode VCSELs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 884–892 (2001).
  5. H. J. Unold, S. W. Z. Mahmoud, R. Jaeger, M. Grabherr, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, “Large-area single-mode VCSELs and the self-aligned surface relief,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 386–392 (2001).
  6. H. J. Unold, M. Golling, R. Michalzik, D. Supper, and K. J. Ebeling, “Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers: tailoring waveguiding for single-mode emission,” Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2001 (Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 520–521.
  7. D.-S. Song, S.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, C.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Single-fundamental-mode photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901–3903 (2002).
  8. W. D. Zhou, J. Sabarinathan, B. Kochman, E. Berg, O. Qasaimeh, S. Pang, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically injected single-defect photonic bandgap surface-emitting laser at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1541–1542 (2000).
  9. H.-G. Park, J.-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Characteristics of modified single-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1353–1365 (2002).
  10. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
  11. O. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, P. T. Lee, I. Kim, J. D. OBrien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Lithographic tuning of a two-dimensional photonic crystal laser array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1126–1128 (2000).
  12. N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, and K. D. Choquette, “Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344–1346 (2003).
  13. N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, and K. D. Choquetteb, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating with photonic crystal seven-point defect structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3608–3609 (2003).
  14. P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, and I. A. Sukhoivanov, “Single-mode conditions in photonic crystal vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Laser and Fiber-Optic Network Modeling, LFNM’02 (Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2002), pp. 141–144.
  15. M. Koshiba, “Full-vector analysis of photonic crystal fibers using the finite element method,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 881–888 (2002).
  16. P. S. Ivanov, A. V. Kublik, I. V. Guryev, A. V. Dyogtev, and S. I. Petrov, “Validity of the effective index model for analysis of photonic crystal crystal fibers,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Laser and Fiber-Optic Network Modeling, LFNM 2003 (Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2003).
  17. N. A. Mortensen, “Effective area of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 341–348 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
  18. J. Y. Law and G. P. Agrawal, “Effects of spatial hole burning on gain switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 462–468 (1997).
  19. J. Shibayama, T. Takahashi, J. Yamauchi, and H. Nakano, “Comparative study of absorbing boundary conditions for the time-domain beam propagation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 314–316 (2001).
  20. J. Riishede, S. E. Barkou Libori, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and E. Knudsen, “Photonic crystal fibres and effective index approaches,” in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2001 (Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 519–520.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited