OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2003
  • pp: 2470–2479

Saturable and reverse saturable absorption of Rhodamine B in methanol and water

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, and D. Narayana Rao  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 12, pp. 2470-2479 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (331 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have investigated nonlinear absorption of Rhodamine B dye in methanol and water near resonance (532 nm) on the higher-energy (435 nm) and lower-energy (600 nm) sides of the absorption band, using an open-aperture Z-scan technique with nanosecond pulses. We observed reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at 435 nm in both of the solvents, and a transition from saturable absorption (SA) to RSA with an increase in either intensity or concentration at 600 nm in methanol. A transition from RSA to SA with an increase in concentration at 600 nm was observed with water as the solvent. We used theoretical analysis based on rate equations to determine the two-photon and excited-state absorption coefficients from the experimental results.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.2050) Lasers and laser optics : Dye lasers
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, and D. Narayana Rao, "Saturable and reverse saturable absorption of Rhodamine B in methanol and water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2470-2479 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. P. Schafer, Dye Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1973).
  2. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
  3. H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).
  4. F. P. Schafer, “Organic dyes in laser technology,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 9, 9–25 (1970). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 24, 73–76 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Anandi, “Two-photon pumped unconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. G. S. He, C. F. Zhao, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped cavity lasing in novel dye doped bulk matrix rods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3703–3705 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Ehrilich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. He, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in refractive media by two-photon excitation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1780–1782 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. M. Maughon, J. Quin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Science 398, 51–54 (1999).
  13. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, and K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting—A survey of Group III and IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Hanack, T. Schneider, M. Barthel, J. S. Shirk, S. R. Flom, and R. G. S. Pong, “Indium phthalocyanines and naphthalocyanines for optical limiting,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 219, 235–258 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356, 225–226 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481–491 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Fischer, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Fluorescence of coumarins and xanthenes after two-photon absorption with a pulsed titanium-sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1989–2003 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, and D. N. Rao, “Nonlinear absorption and excited state dynamics in Rhodamine B studied using Z-scan and degenerate four wave mixing techniques,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 361, 439–445 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. C. V. Bindhu, S. S. Harilal, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and aggregation in aqueous solutions of Rhodamine 6G using a transient thermal lens technique,” J. Phys. D 32, 407–411 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Sathy, R. Philip, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Photoacoustic observation of excited state absorption in the laser dye Rhodamine 6G,” J. Phys. D 27, 2019–2022 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Liu, Q. Gong, Y. Chen, H. Chen, and D. Qiang, “Reverse saturable absorption of a novel Rhodamine B cation fulleride salt at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 477–479 (2001). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  24. D. N. Rao, S. V. Rao, F. J. Aranda, M. Nakashima, and J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. S. V. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, and D. N. Rao, “A novel observation in the measurement of ultrafast relaxation times using incoherent light,” Curr. Sci. 72, 957–960 (1997).
  26. S. V. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Excited state dynamics of C60 studied using incoherent light,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 283, 227–230 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, D. N. Rao, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Excited state dynamics in tetratolyl porphyrins studied using degenerate four wave mixing with incoherent light and ps pulses,” Opt. Commun. 192, 123–133 (2001). [CrossRef]
  28. S. V. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Excited state dynamics of phthalocyanines studied using degenerate four wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Porphyr. Phthalocyan. 6, 233–238 (2002).
  29. S. V. Rao, D. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion study of nonlinear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995). [CrossRef]
  31. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 207.
  32. M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, L. W. Hillman, J. Krasinski, and C. R. Stroud, Jr., “Saturation and inverse-saturation absorption line shapes in alexandrite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 73–75 (1984). [CrossRef]
  33. M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. L. Davies, H. Reish, and U. Scherf, “Saturable absorption in poly(indenofluorene): a picket-fence polymer,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1295–1297 (1998). [CrossRef]
  34. J. E. Selwyn and J. I. Steidfeld, “Aggregation equilibria of xanthene dyes,” J. Phys. Chem. 76, 762–774 (1972). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Sinha, A. Ray, and K. Dasgupta, “Solvent dependent nonlinear refraction in organic dye solution,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3222–3226 (2000). [CrossRef]
  36. G. B. Talapatra, D. N. Rao, and P. N. Prasad, “Spectral diffusion within the inhomogeneously broadened n-π* singlet–triplet transition of the orientationally disordered solid of 4-bromo-4-chlorobenzophenone,” J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4636–4640 (1984). [CrossRef]
  37. N. K. M. N. Srinivas, S. V. Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, and D. N. Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyri. Phthalocyn. 5, 549–554 (2001).
  38. O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998). [CrossRef]
  39. M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 10, 797–10, 804 (2001). [CrossRef]
  40. P. C. Beaumont, D. G. Johnson, and B. J. Parsons, “Photophysical properties of laser dyes: picosecond laser flash photolysis studies of Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine B and Rhodamine 101,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 4185–4191 (1993). [CrossRef]
  41. I. L. Arbeloa and K. K. Rohatgi-Mukherjee, “Solvent effect on photophysics of the molecular forms of Rhodamine B. Solvation models and spectroscopic parameters,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 128, 474–479 (1986). [CrossRef]
  42. A. L. Smirl, J. B. Clark, E. W. Van Stryland, and B. R. Russell, “Population and rotational kinetics of the Rhodamine B monomer and dimer: picosecond transient spectrometry,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 631–640 (1982), and references therein. [CrossRef]
  43. D. D. Smith, G. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, and D. A. Gregory, “Cancellation of photoinduced absorption in metal nanoparticle composites through a counterintuitive consequence of local field effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1625–1631 (1997). [CrossRef]
  44. C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, “Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945–2948 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited