We report on the experimental observation of efficient all-resonant three-wave mixing using high-<i>Q</i> whispering-gallery modes. The modes were excited in a millimeter size toroidal cavity fabricated from LiNbO<sub>3</sub>. We implemented a low-noise resonant electro-optic modulator based on this wave mixing process. We observe an efficient modulation of light with coherent microwave pumping at 9 GHz with applied power of approximately 10 mW. Used as a receiver, the modulator allows us to detect nanowatt microwave radiation. Preliminary results with a 33-GHz modulator prototype are also reported. We present a theoretical interpretation of the experimental results and discuss possible applications of the device.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
(230.0040) Optical devices : Detectors
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
(230.4110) Optical devices : Modulators
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
Vladimir S. Ilchenko, Anatoliy A. Savchenkov, Andrey B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, "Whispering-gallery-mode electro-optic modulator and photonic microwave receiver," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 333-342 (2003)