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Formation of ultracold molecules by photoassociation: theoretical developments
Olivier Dulieu and Françoise Masnou-Seeuws »View Author Affiliations
Olivier Dulieu, Françoise Masnou-Seeuws
Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique II, Campus d'Orsay, Orsay 91405, France
JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 1083-1090 (2003)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.20.001083
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Abstract
In recent years several groups of researchers have succeeded in making samples of cold molecules, at temperatures below 1 K, and of ultracold molecules, at temperatures below 1 mK. We concentrate on the formation of Cs_{2} dimers. Starting with laser-cooled atoms, photoassociation forms molecules in an excited electronic state. Various mechanisms are presented for stabilizing these molecules by spontaneous emission into a bound level of the ground electronic state. The design of new formation schemes requires precise knowledge of molecular potential curves that is well beyond the accuracy of ab initio calculations. We show that analytical long-range potentials can be fitted on photoassociation spectra and yield, through the determination of the C_{3} long-range coefficient, a value of the radiative lifetime of the 6P_{3/2} cesium level with an unprecedented accuracy. For short-range potentials it is possible to avoid explicit calculations by using asymptotic methods that generalize to long-range molecules the quantum-defect concepts developed for Rydberg atoms. Considering two coupled channels, we show how generalized Lu–Fano plots can extract precise information from experimental spectra.
© 2003 Optical Society of America
OCIS Codes
(020.7010) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser trapping
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
Citation
Olivier Dulieu and Françoise Masnou-Seeuws, "Formation of ultracold molecules by photoassociation: theoretical developments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1083-1090 (2003)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-20-5-1083
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References
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- A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
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- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−} long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs_{2} cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
- F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs_{2} cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
- A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
- R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
- M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
- E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
- E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
- M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb_{2} and Cs_{2} molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
- N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
- A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6P_{J} levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C_{6},” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
- J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
- J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
- V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−} long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−}(P_{3/2}) potential curve and Cs 6p_{1/2, 3/2} radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
- P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs_{2} molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
- J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).
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- J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
- H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
- E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
- J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
- N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb_{2} A ^{1}Σ_{u}^{+}(0_{u}^{+}) and b ^{3}Π_{u}(0_{u}^{+}) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
- P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
- E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
- A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
- A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
- A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
- H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
- J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
- L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p ^{2}P_{1/2} and Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
- P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
- E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
- L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p ^{2}P_{1/2} and Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
Can. J. Phys.
- E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
- E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
Eur. J. Phys.
- P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs_{2} molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).
Eur. J. Phys. D
- A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−} long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
J. Chem. Phys.
- V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb_{2}(0_{u}^{+}) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
- M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb_{2} and Cs_{2} molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
- R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
J. Phys. B
- V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
- A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
J. Phys. Chem. A
- J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
Nature
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
- J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
- J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
- F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
Phys. Rev. A
- J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
- V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb_{2} and Cs_{2} ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).
- R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
- E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
- P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−}(P_{3/2}) potential curve and Cs 6p_{1/2, 3/2} radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
- L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p ^{2}P_{1/2} and Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
- R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p^{2} P_{1/2, 3/2} states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
- A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6P_{J} levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C_{6},” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
- K. T. Lu and U. Fano, “Graphic analysis of perturbed Rydberg Series,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 81–86 (1970).
- V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
Phys. Rev. Lett.
- M. Lintz and M. A. Bouchiat, “Dimer destruction in a Cs vapor by a laser close to atomic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2570–2573 (1998).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
- P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb_{2} A ^{1}Σ_{u}^{+}(0_{u}^{+}) and b ^{3}Π_{u}(0_{u}^{+}) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
- C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
- J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
- N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs_{2} cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
- A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
- A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
- C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
- H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
Z. Phys. D
- M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
Other
- N. Spiess, “Ab initio calculations for Cs_{2},” Ph.D dissertation (Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany, 1989).
2002, Hudson, Phys. Rev. Lett.
- J. J. Hudson, B. E. Sauer, M. R. Tarbutt, and E. A. Hinds, “Measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using YbF molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 023003, 1–4 (2002).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, S. Y. T. van de Meerakker, and G. Meijer, “Deceleration and trapping of ammonia using time-varying electric fields,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053416, 1–20 (2002).
- C. M. Dion, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, W. de Souza Melo, N. Vanhaecke, P. Pillet, R. Beuc, S. Milošević, and G. Pichler, “Photoionization and detection of ultracold Cs_{2} molecules through diffuse bands,” Eur. J. Phys. D 18, 365–370 (2002).
- N. Vanhaecke, W. de Souza Melo, B. Laburthe Tolra, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Accumulation of cold cesium molecules via photoassociation in a mixed atomic and molecular trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 063001, 1–4 (2002).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, R. F. Gutterres, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Determination of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−}(P_{3/2}) potential curve and Cs 6p_{1/2, 3/2} radiative lifetimes from photoassociation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 052506, 1–9 (2002).
- A. Derevianko and S. G. Porsev, “Determination of lifetimes of 6P_{J} levels and ground-state polarizability of Cs from van der Waals coefficient C_{6},” Phys. Rev. A 65, 053403 (2002).
- V. Kokoouline, C. Drag, P. Pillet, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for interpretation of the photoassociation spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 062710, 1–10 (2002).
- P. Pellegrini, O. Dulieu, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Formation of Cs_{2} molecules via Feshbach resonances stabilized by spontaneous emission: theoretical treatment with the Fourier grid method,” Eur. J. Phys. 20, 77–86 (2002).
- V. N. Ostrovsky, V. Kokoouline, E. Luc-Koenig, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Lu–Fano plots for potentials with non-Coulomb tails: application to vibrational spectra of long-range diatomic molecules,” J. Phys. B 34, L27–L38 (2001).
- J. Vala, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and R. Kosloff, “Coherent control of cold molecule formation through photoassociation using a chirped pulsed laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013412, 1–12 (2001).
- C. M. Dion, C. Drag, O. Dulieu, B. Laburthe Tolra, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Resonant coupling in the formation of ultracold ground state molecules via photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2253–2256 (2001).
- F. M. H. Crompvoets, H. L. Bethlem, R. T. Jongma, and G. Meijer, “A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules,” Nature 411, 174–176 (2001).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, A. J. A. van Roij, F. M. H. Crompvoets, and G. Meijer, “Trapping neutral molecules in a traveling potential well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5744–5747 (2000).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, F. M. H. Crompvoets, R. T. Jongma, A. J. A. van Roij, and G. Meijer, “Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules,” Nature 406, 491–494 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat, M. Vatasescu, S. Boussen, S. Guibal, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Experimental versus theoretical rates for photoassociation and for formation of ultracold molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1378 (2000).
- A. N. Nikolov, J. R. Enscher, E. E. Eyler, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Efficient production of ground state potassium molecules at sub-mK temperatures by two-step photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 246–249 (2000).
- C. Gabbanini, A. Fioretti, A. Lucchesini, S. Gozzini, and M. Mazzoni, “Cold rubidium molecules formed in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2814–2817 (2000).
- V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Theoretical treatment of channel mixing in excited Rb_{2} and Cs_{2} ultracold molecules. II. Determination of predissociation lifetimes with coordinate mapping,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 032716, 1–10 (2000).
- A. Allouche, M. Korek, K. Fakherddin, A. Chaalan, M. Dagher, F. Taher, and M. Aubert-Frécon, “Theoretical electronic structure of RbCs revisited,” J. Phys. B 33, 2307–2316 (2000).
- C. Drag, B. Laburthe Tolra, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy as a self-sufficient tool for the determination of the Cs triplet scattering length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1408–1411 (2000).
- P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Collision properties of ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721–2724 (2000).
- A. Fioretti, E. Arimondo, and A. Crubellier, “Flux enhancement model for cold cesium fine-structure changing collisions,” Eur. J. Phys. D 12, 219–225 (2000).
- C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, and J. Vergès, “Resolution of the apparent disorder of the Rb_{2} A ^{1}Σ_{u}^{+}(0_{u}^{+}) and b ^{3}Π_{u}(0_{u}^{+}) spectra: a case of fully coupled electronic states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2316–2319 (1999).
- V. Kokoouline, O. Dulieu, R. Kosloff, and F. Masnou-Seeuws, “Mapped Fourier methods for long-range molecules: application to perturbations in the Rb_{2}(0_{u}^{+}) photoassociation spectrum,” J. Chem. Phys. 110, 9865–9876 (1999).
- R. J. Rafac, C. E. Tanner, A. E. Livingston, K. W. Kukla, H. G. Berry, and C. A. Kurtz, “Fast-beam laser lifetime measurements of the cesium 6p^{2} P_{1/2, 3/2} states,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3648–3662 (1999).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs_{2} 0_{g}^{−} long-range state,” Eur. J. Phys. D 5, 389–403 (1999).
- A. N. Nikolov, E. E. Eyler, X. T. Wang, J. Li, H. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, and P. L. Gould, “Observation of ultracold ground state potassium molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 703–706 (1999).
- J. M. Doyle and B. Friedrich, “Molecules are cool,” Nature 401, 749–751 (1999).
- H. L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G. Meijer, “Decelerating neutral dipolar molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1558–1561 (1999).
- J. D. Weinstein, R. deCarvalho, T. Guillet, B. Friedrich, and J. M. Doyle, “Magnetic trapping of calcium monohydride molecules at millikelvin temperatures,” Nature 395, 148–150 (1998).
- A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Formation of Cs_{2} cold molecules through photoassociation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402–4405 (1998).
- J. Higgins, C. Callegari, J. Reho, F. Stienkemeier, W. E. Ernst, M. Gutowski, and G. Scoles, “Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy of alkali dimers in the triplet manifold,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 4952–4965 (1998).
- R. Co⁁té and A. Dalgarno, “Photoassociation intensities and radiative trap loss in lithium,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 498–508 (1998).
- E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of highly excited vibrational levels of alkali dimers: Green’s function approach for eigenvalue solvers,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4257–4267 (1998).
- M. Lintz and M. A. Bouchiat, “Dimer destruction in a Cs vapor by a laser close to atomic resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2570–2573 (1998).
- M. Marinescu and A. Dalgarno, “Analytical interaction potentials of the long range alkali-metal dimers,” Z. Phys. D 36, 239–258 (1996).
- L. Young, W. T. Hill III, S. J. Sibener, S. D. Price, C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, and S. R. Leone, “Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p ^{2}P_{1/2} and Cs 6p ^{2}P_{3/2} levels by single-photon counting,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 2174–2181 (1994).
- M. Foucrault, Ph. Millié, and J. P. Daudey, “Non-perturbative method for corevalence correlation in pseudopotential calculations: application to the Rb_{2} and Cs_{2} molecules,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1257–1264 (1992).
- P. S. Julienne and J. Vigué, “Cold collisions of ground and excited state alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4464–4485 (1991).
- H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, and P. S. Julienne, “Laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420–2423 (1987).
- E. I. Dashevskaya and E. E. Nikitin, “Polarization transfer and relaxation induced in collisions of excited alkali atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 54, 709–719 (1976).
- R. J. Le Roy and R. B. Bernstein, “Dissociation energy and long-range potential of diatomic molecules from vibrational spacings of higher levels,” J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3869–3874 (1970).
- K. T. Lu and U. Fano, “Graphic analysis of perturbed Rydberg Series,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 81–86 (1970).
- E. I. Dashevskaya, A. I. Voronin, and E. E. Nikitin, “Theory of excitation transfer in collisions between alkali atoms. I. Identical partners,” Can. J. Phys. 47, 1237–1246 (1969).
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