OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 20, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2003
  • pp: 1550–1554

Two-photon-excited absolute emission cross-sectional measurements calibrated with a luminance meter

Rakesh Kapoor, Christopher S. Friend, and Amitava Patra  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 1550-1554 (2003)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (287 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A fluorescence-based method to measure an absolute two-photon emission cross section is reported in which we measured the absolute fluorescence power using a commercial luminance meter. An analytical expression between the average fluorescence power and the average pump power is derived. The expression is valid for any arbitrary-shaped pump-laser profile. It was also found that the origin of deviation of fluorescence intensity from expected quadratic dependence on pump power is thermal in nature. The method is used to measure the absolute two-photon-excited (TPE) emission cross section of Rhodamine 6G at an 800-nm excitation wavelength. The measured TPE emission cross section at 800 nm is ηδ=(36±6)× 10-50 (cm4/s)/photon. Within experimental error, the result obtained with this method is quite close to the previously reported TPE cross section obtained with the fluorescence method.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
(300.6410) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, multiphoton

Rakesh Kapoor, Christopher S. Friend, and Amitava Patra, "Two-photon-excited absolute emission cross-sectional measurements calibrated with a luminance meter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1550-1554 (2003)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “2-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science (Washington, DC, U.S.) 248, 73–76 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. X. Wang, H. E. Pudavar, R. Kapoor, L. J. Krebs, E. J. Bergey, C. Liebow, P. N. Prasad, A. Nagy, and A. V. Schally, “Studies on the mechanism of action of a targeted chemotherapeutic drug in living cancer cells by two photon laser scanning microspectrofluorometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 319–325 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Mertz, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Single-molecule detection by two-photon-excited fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2532–2534 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Berland, P. T. So, and E. Gratton, “2-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy—method and application to the intracellular enviorenment,” Biophys. J. 68, 694–701 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Schwille, U. Haupts, S. Maiti, and W. W. Webb, “Molecular dynamics in living cells observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with one- and two-photon excitation,” Biophys. J. 77, 2251–2265 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “3-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Sengupta, J. Balaji, S. Benerjee, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, and S. Maiti, “Sensitive measurement of absolute two-photon absorption cross sections,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9201–9205 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Tian and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast measurement of two-photon absorption by loss modulation,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1634–1636 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. I. M. Catalano and A. Cingolani, “Absolute 2-photon fluorescence with low-power cw lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 745–747 (1981). [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Hermann and J. Ducuing, “Dispersion of the two-photon cross section in rhodamine dyes,” Opt. Commun. 6, 101–105 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fischer, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Fluorescence of coumarins and xanthenes after two-photon absorption with a pulsed titanium–sapphire laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1989–2003 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Xu and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690 to 1050 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481–491 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Albota, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon fluorescence excitation cross sections of biomolecular probes from 690 to 960 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7352–7356 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Kaatz and D. P. Shelton, “Two-photon fluorescence cross-section measurements calibrated with hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 998–1006 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Kapoor, P. K. Mukhopadhyay, J. George, and S. K. Sharma, “An alternative approach to determine the spot-size of a multi-mode laser beam and its application to diode laser beams,” Pramana 53, 307–319 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. A. E. Siegman Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  18. J. A. Hermann, “Nonlinear optical absorption in thick media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 814–823 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited