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## Influence of higher Coulomb correlations on optical coherent-control signals from a ZnSe quantum well

Hans Georg Breunig, Tobias Voss, Ilja Rückmann, Jürgen Gutowski, Vollrath Martin Axt, and Tilmann Kuhn »View Author Affiliations

Hans Georg Breunig, Tobias Voss, Ilja Rückmann, Jürgen Gutowski

*Institut für Festkörperphysik, Universität Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen, Germany*

Vollrath Martin Axt, Tilmann Kuhn

*Institut für Festkörpertheorie, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster, Germany*

JOSA B, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 1769-1779 (2003)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.20.001769

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### Abstract

The manipulation of the coherent optical polarization in a quantum well with a pair of phase-locked laser pulses is investigated by using wave-mixing signals. The measurements are performed in four- and six-wave-mixing geometries with different polarization states of the excitation pulses. Even at moderate excitation densities, the signals are modulated by higher harmonics that correspond to high-order optical nonlinearities. A significant effect of higher Coulomb correlations on the coherent-control signals is demonstrated by comparing the experiments with calculations based on a microscopic density-matrix theory. The theoretical approach makes use of the dynamics-controlled truncation scheme. The corresponding numerical results are in good agreement with the experiment.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

**OCIS Codes**

(320.7120) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast phenomena

(320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

**Citation**

Hans Georg Breunig, Tobias Voss, Ilja Rückmann, Jürgen Gutowski, Vollrath Martin Axt, and Tilmann Kuhn, "Influence of higher Coulomb correlations on optical coherent-control signals from a ZnSe quantum well," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **20**, 1769-1779 (2003)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-20-8-1769

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**Albrecht, A. W.**

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**Amand, T.**

- P. Renucci, M. Pillard, X. Marie, T. Amand, J. Barrau, and C. Ciuti, “Temporal coherent control in semiconductor quantum structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 178, 373–379 (2000).
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**Atanasov, R.**

- A. Hache, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).

**Awschalom, D. D.**

- J. M. Kikkawa and D. D. Awschalom, “All-optical magnetic resonance in semiconductors,” Science 287, 473–476 (2000).

**Axt, V. M.**

- T. Voss, H. G. Breunig, I. Rückmann, J. Gutowski, V. M. Axt, and T. Kuhn, “Biexcitonic effects in the coherent control of the excitonic polarization detected in six-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155301 (2002).
- V. M. Axt, B. Haase, and U. Neukirch, “Influence of two-pair continuum correlations following resonant excitation of excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4620–4623 (2001).
- V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations insix-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
- S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).
- B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Meinertz, J. Gutowski, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Intensity dependence of signals obtained in four-wave-mixing geometry: influence of higher order contributions,” J. Cryst. Growth 214, 852–861 (2000).
- B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–R7808 (1999).
- D. Steinbach, G. Kocherscheidt, M. U. Wehner, H. Kalt, M. Wegener, K. Ohkawa, D. Hommel, and V. M. Axt, “Electron-phonon quantum kinetics in the strong coupling regime,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 12079–12090 (1999).
- V. M. Axt and S. Mukamel, “Nonlinear optics of semiconductor and molecular nanostructures; a common perspective,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 145–174 (1998).
- V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
- G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1998).
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).

**Bar-Ad, S.**

- P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).

**Barrau, J.**

- P. Renucci, M. Pillard, X. Marie, T. Amand, J. Barrau, and C. Ciuti, “Temporal coherent control in semiconductor quantum structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 178, 373–379 (2000).
- X. Marie, P. Renucci, S. Dubourg, T. Amand, P. Le Jeune, J. Barrau, J. Bloch, and R. Planel, “Coherent control of exciton polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R2494–R2497 (1999).
- X. Marie, P. Le Jeune, T. Amand, M. Brousseau, J. Barrau, M. Paillard, and R. Planel, “Coherent control of optical orientation of excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3222–3225 (1997).

**Bartels, G.**

- B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Meinertz, J. Gutowski, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Intensity dependence of signals obtained in four-wave-mixing geometry: influence of higher order contributions,” J. Cryst. Growth 214, 852–861 (2000).
- B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–R7808 (1999).
- B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
- G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1998).
- G. Bartels, G. C. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).

**Baumberg, J. J.**

- J. J. Baumberg, A. P. Heberle, K. Köhler, and K. Ploog, “Ultrafast coherent carrier control in quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1246–1252 (1996).
- A. P. Heberle, J. J. Baumberg, and K. Köhler, “Ultrafast coherent control and destruction of excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2598–2601 (1995).

**Berman, P. R.**

- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient four-wave-mixing line shapes: effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994).

**Binder, R.**

- N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Third-order exciton-correlation and nonlinear cavity-polariton effects in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045316 (2001).
- N. H. Kwong, R. Takayama, I. Rumyantsev, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and R. Binder, “Evidence of nonperturbative continuum correlations in two-dimensional exciton systems in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 027402 (2001).
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient four-wave-mixing line shapes: effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994).
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).

**Bloch, J.**

**Bolton, S. R.**

- V. M. Axt, S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, and D. S. Chemla, “Evidence of six-particle Coulomb correlations insix-wave-mixing signals from a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115303 (2001).
- S. R. Bolton, U. Neukirch, L. J. Sham, D. S. Chemla, and V. M. Axt, “Demonstration of sixth-order coulomb correlations in a semiconductor single quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2002–2005 (2000).

**Bonadeo, N. H.**

- G. Chen, N. H. Bonadeo, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, “Optically induced entanglement of excitons in a single quantum dot,” Science 289, 1906–1909 (2000).

**Brener, I.**

- M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
- P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, “Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903–4906 (1993).

**Breunig, H. G.**

- H. G. Breunig, T. Voss, I. Rückmann, and J. Gutowski, “Coherent control of biexcitonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 193302 (2002).
- H. G. Breunig, T. Trüper, I. Rückmann, J. Gutowski, and F. Jahnke, “Evidence of density-dependent dephasing in interferometric four-wave-mixing experiments on heavy-hole excitons in ZnSe quantum wells,” Physica B 314, 283–287 (2002).
- T. Voss, H. G. Breunig, I. Rückmann, J. Gutowski, V. M. Axt, and T. Kuhn, “Biexcitonic effects in the coherent control of the excitonic polarization detected in six-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 155301 (2002).
- H. G. Breunig, T. Trüper, I. Rückmann, J. Gutowski, and F. Jahnke, “Interferometric four-wave-mixing experiments on ZnSe quantum-well structures,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229, 621–625 (2001).

**Brick, P.**

- C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, M. Hubner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).

**Brousseau, M.**

**Castella, H.**

- H. Castella and R. Zimmermann, “Coherent control for a two-lever system coupled to phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7801–R7804 (1999).

**Chemla, D. S.**

- M. Wegener and D. S. Chemla, “Coherent control of electron-phonon quantum kinetics: exploring the weak and the strong coupling regime,” Chem. Phys. 251, 269–282 (2000).
- M. U. Wehner, M. H. Ulm, D. S. Chemla, and M. Wegener, “Coherent control of electron-LO-phonon scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1992–1995 (1998).
- P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).

**Chen, G.**

- G. Chen, N. H. Bonadeo, D. G. Steel, D. Gammon, D. S. Katzer, D. Park, and L. J. Sham, “Optically induced entanglement of excitons in a single quantum dot,” Science 289, 1906–1909 (2000).

**Cho, G. C.**

- G. Bartels, G. C. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, A. Stahl, and K. Köhler, “Coherent signature of differential transmission signals in semiconductors: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 16404–16413 (1997).

**Chuang, S. L.**

- M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
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**Ciuti, C.**

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