OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2004
  • pp: 1848–1859

Difficulties involving dynamic polarization-based impairment measurements using Jones matrices

Christopher J. K. Richardson, Shuo-Yen Tseng, Julius Goldhar, Robert J. Runser, and Linden B. Mercer  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 1848-1859 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (687 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The concurrent realization of multiple polarization-based link impairments such as polarization-mode dispersion, polarization-dependent loss, and differential-attenuation slope creates a nontrivial measurement and analysis problem. The difficulties concerning the robustness of raw data, of minimizing drift artifacts experienced during multiple wavelength measurements, and the analysis methods that lead to physical significant interpretations are addressed. Measurements of an in-service wavelength-division-multiplexed metro-area network are presented that explicitly illustrate the limitations when using industry-standard commercial test equipment.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Christopher J. K. Richardson, Shuo-Yen Tseng, Julius Goldhar, Robert J. Runser, and Linden B. Mercer, "Difficulties involving dynamic polarization-based impairment measurements using Jones matrices," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1848-1859 (2004)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Hernday, “Measurement of polarization effects in lightwave systems,” presented at the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, San Diego, Calif., February 21, 1999.
  2. D. Derickson, ed., Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1998).
  3. C. J. K. Richardson, R. J. Runser, M. Goodman, and L. Mercer, “Statistical evaluation of polarization-dependent losses and polarization-mode dispersion in an installed fiber networkD,” NIST Spec. Publ. 988 (2002).
  4. D. S. Waddy, C. Liang, and B. Xiaoyi, “Theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 468–470 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Takahashi, T. Imai, and M. Iki, “Time evolution of pmd in 120 km installed optical submarine cable,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1605 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Bulow and G. Veith, “Temporal dynamics of error-rate degradation induced by polarisation mode dispersion fluctuation of a field fiber link,” presented at the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications, Edinburgh, UK, September 22–25 (1997).
  7. M. Brodsky, P. Maggill, and N. Frigo, “Evidence of parametric dependence of pmd on temperature in installed 0.05 ps/km1/2,” presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 2002.
  8. R. Caponi, B. Riposati, A. Rossaro, and M. Schiano, “WDM system impairments due to highly-correlated pmd spectra of buried optical cables,” Electron. Lett. 38, 737–738 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Huttner, C. Geiser, and N. Gisin, “Polarization-induced distortions in optical fiber networks with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 317–329 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Huttner, C. DeBarros, B. Gisin, and N. Gisin, “Polarization-induced pulse spreading in birefringent optical fibers with zero differential group delay,” Opt. Lett. 24, 370–372 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Doverspike, M. Maeda, S. Narain, J. Pastor, Chien-Chung Shen, N. Stoffel, Yukun Tsai, and B. Wilson, “Network management research in atdnet,” IEEE Network 10, 30–41 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. B. L. Heffner, “Automated measurements of polarization-mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 814 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. P. A. Williams, A. J. Barlow, C. Mackechnie, and J. B. Schlager, “Narrowband measurements of polarization-mode dispersion using the modulation phase shift technique,” NIST Spec. Publ. 930, 23–26 (1998).
  14. C. D. Poole and R. E. Wagner, “Phenomenological approach to polarization-mode dispersion in long single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 1029–1030 (1986). [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Gordon and H. Kogelnik, “PMD fundamentals: polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 97, 4541–4550 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Nyman, “Automated system for measuring polarization-dependent loss,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 230.
  17. R. Craig, S. Gilbert, and P. Hale, “Accurate polarization dependent loss measurement and calibration standard development,” NIST Spec. Publ. 930, 5–8 (1998).
  18. B. L. Heffner, “Deterministic, analytically complete measurement of polarization-dependent transmission through optical devices,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 451–454 (1992). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Li and A. Yariv, “Solutions to the dynamical equation of polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1821–1827 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and J. Brentel, “Long-term measurement of pmd and polarization drift in installed fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Holmes, “Exact theory of retardation plates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1115 (1964). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  23. R. C. Jones, “A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems. VI. Experimental determination of the matrix,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 110–112 (1947). [CrossRef]
  24. P. J. Leo, G. R. Gray, G. J. Simer, and K. B. Rochford, “State of polarization changes: classification and measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2189–2193 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. Hewlett-Packard Company, HP 8509A/B Lightwave Polarization Analyzer User’s/Reference Guide (Hewlett-Packard Company, Santa Rosa, Calif., 1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited