OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: George I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2005
  • pp: 2115–2120

Cavity-enhanced single-frequency synthesis via difference-frequency generation of mode-locked pulse trains

Gabriele Ferrari and Iacopo Carusotto  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 22, Issue 10, pp. 2115-2120 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (106 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show how to synthesize a cw, single-frequency optical field from the frequency-dispersed, pulsed field of a mode-locked laser. This process, which relies on difference-frequency generation in an optical cavity, is efficient and can be considered as an optical rectification. Quantitative estimates for the output power and amplitude noise properties of a realistic system are given. Possible applications to optical frequency synthesis and optical metrology are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4570) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical design of instruments
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Gabriele Ferrari and Iacopo Carusotto, "Cavity-enhanced single-frequency synthesis via difference-frequency generation of mode-locked pulse trains," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2115-2120 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Jennings, C. R. Pollock, F. R. Petersen, R. E. Drullinger, K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, J. L. Hall, and H. P. Layer, "Direct frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized He-Ne 473-THz(633-nm) laser," Opt. Lett. 8, 136-138 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, "First phase-coherent frequency measurement of visible radiation, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18-21 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. R. Telle, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsch, "Realization of a new concept for visible frequency division: phase locking of harmonic and sum frequencies, " Opt. Lett. 15, 532-534 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646-2649 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, "Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2693-2701 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, and M. Kourogi, "Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5-µm bands of acetylene," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708-2714 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, "Optical frequency synthesis based on modelocked lasers, " Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3749-3771 (2001), and references therein. [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Telle,G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation, " Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Hollberg, C. W. Oates, E. A. Curtis, E. N. Ivanov, S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, H. G. Robinson, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, R. E. Drullinger, and D. J. Wineland, "Optical frequency standards and measurements," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1502-1513 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, "Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecondoscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1842-1844 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. I. Thomann, A. Bartels, K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, L. Hollberg, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, "20-MHz Cr:forsterite femtosecond ring laser and continuum generation in the 1-2 µm range," Opt. Lett. 28, 1368-1370 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. This approach requires a finesse sufficiently high to avoid the contribution of cavity modes close to unwanted resonances and may result in a cavity finesse higher than a few thousands, which can be considered a realistic value for cavities containing optical elements.
  16. The detailed spectrum of a mode-locked laser depends critically on the dispersion properties of its cavity and eventually those of the medium employed to broaden its spectrum.
  17. L. E. Myers,R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, and W. R. Bosenberg, "Multigrating quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator in periodically poled LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 21, 591-593 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. De Natale, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, M. Prevedelli, C. De Mauro, and M. Inguscio, "Extending the optical comb synthesizer to the infrared: from He at 1.083 µm to CO2 at 4.2 µm," in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, P.Hannaford, A.Sidorov, H.Bachor, and K.Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), pp. 63-67.
  19. T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, "Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 632-634 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, 1986).
  21. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1992).
  22. P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited